A Review of
The Department of Police,
Trenton, New Jersey.
1899

  


  


  

Introductory.


TWO reasons can be assigned for the publication of this volume - one is to place in the hands of the people something that will give an accurate description of the personnel and workings of the Police Department of Trenton, and the other is to aid the two benevolent and protective associations which are described in detail in the following pages, and for the benefit for whom this publication is made.

     No attempt has been made to go into a long and detailed history of the past, as the records are unreliable and largely legendery [sic] beyond a certain point. The stress of the publication is laid on the present, and it has been the aim of the compiler to be correct in every statement. It is believed that anyone who will read carefully the following pages can readily understand what the resources and equipment of this department of the city's economy is and what its effectiveness should be.

     The interest of the reader is kept up by copious illustrations of the supreme heads of the department and all the men, while a short sketch will be found of each individual, making it an absolute record, which will grow in value as time progresses.

     An unprejudiced person will find much to commend and admire in the system now in force and will form a better opinion of the brave fellows who hold their lives in their hands in the protection of the public. It will also be revealed that personally these men are gentlemen, and physically, mentally and morally well worthy and qualified for the positions they occupy. Their work is before the eyes of the people, their lives an unbroken record of devotion to the exacting demands of an arduous and thankless calling. Danger lurks in unexpected places and death hovers in the footsteps of every man.

     The subscribers to this book have the satisfaction of knowing that whatever profit there may arise from their patronage goes to swell no private fortune, but is devoted to the purpose to which any man might well be asked to contribute without expectation of direct return.

     It is the desire of the men of the two associations, under whose auspices this book is published to express their appreciation of the successful efforts of Messrs. G. D. W. Vroom and (Ex-President of Common Council) John W. Brooke in removing the Police Department from under the ban of politics. They have well earned the gratitude of the public as well as the men comprising the Department for, in a great measure, making possible the efficiency on which these pages treat.

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Roster of the Trenton Police Department


Police Commisioners

Charles P. Kitson, President.
Harry S. Maddock,
                                    Robert Surtees,
William J. Convery.

Richard R. Lutes,Secretary.

William B. VanDuyn, Surgeon               Charles C. Drake, Superintendent Telegraph

CHARLES H. McCHESNEY, Chief of Police.

First Precinct Station.

John J. Cleary, Captain.
Andrew Sweeny, Sergeant.               
Frank Van Horn, Sergeant.
Michael McGowan, Sergeant.
Charles Pilger, Detective.
Lisbon R. Applegate, Detective.
James Mullen, Roundsman.
Phineas Randolph, Roundsman.
Richard J. Bamford, Patrolman.
Charles H. Smith, Patrolman.
Charles H. Schanck, Patrolman.
Charles Irving, Patrolman.
Martin McDonald, Patrolman.
Samuel M. Meyers, Patrolman.
John H. McKeon, Patrolman.
John McDonough, Patrolman.
John Ryan, Patrolman.
William Higgins, Patrolman.
George H. Clark, Patrolman.
William Deck, Patrolman.
James Feenane, Patrolman.
Dennis Lane, Patrolman.
Henry Walker, Patrolman.
Henry Richter, Patrolman.
Charles Connor, Patrolman.
William McLea, Patrolman.
James T. Culliton, Patrolman.
John Heher, Patrolman.
Edward Coughlin, Patrolman.
Augustus F. Kulp, Patrolman.
Oliver G. Cockram, Patrolman.
William N. Hibbs, Patrolman.
William H. Schenck, Patrolman.
John Hoffman, Patrolman.
William V. Adams, Patrolman.
Richard C. Pilger, Patrolman.
John H. Hutchinson, Patrolman.
Peter B. McLaughlin, Patrolman.
Edward Kelly, Patrolman.
James J. Fay, Patrolman.
George Matheis, Patrolman.
Wesley Wooley, Driver
Allen Rogers, Driver

Second Precinct Station.

William Hartman, Captain.
William Dettmar, Sergeant.
Judson Hiner, Sergeant.
William Alcutt, Sergeant.
Cornelius J. McNamara, Roundsman.
John W. Zenker, Roundsman.
Peter J. Smith, Patrolman.
William Shockley, Patrolman.
Patrick O'Hara, Patrolman.
James W. Smith, Patrolman.
John Maguire, Patrolman.
Luke D. Johnson, Patrolman.
Edward Fitzpatrick, Patrolman.
John J. Donnelly, Patrolman.
Jacob Rieman, Patrolman.
Joseph A. Tyrrell, Patrolman.
George Fox, Patrolman.
Frank S. Higbee, Patrolman.
Samuel B. Stout, Patrolman.
John Goldenbaum, Patrolman.
William S. Thomson, Patrolman.
Theodore Weigand, Patrolman.
Jacob Walters, Patrolman.
John J.m McCarthy, Patrolman.
John C. Geller, Patrolman.
Anthony Alcutt, Patrolman.
Bernard F. Trainor, Patrolman.
Michael J. Shannon, Patrolman.
Charles Huepeden, Patrolman.
James R. Laird, Patrolman.
William M. Hammel, Patrolman.
William Sandhoff, Patrolman.
Ernest Hillman, Patrolman.
James A. Ross, Patrolman.

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BIOGRAPHICAL.


     Before entering into the review of the Police Department it is thought best to present to the reader the principals about whose actions the story is woven. In obtaining the data for this portion of the review, the chief difficulty to overcome has been the opposition to anything of a laudatory nature being included in their biographies.

     Commendable as their modesty is, it has excluded much matter that would have proved of great interest, as there is no calling in which so many exciting and interesting experiences are met with as in the life of a police officer.

     The soldier who enlists to fight for his country does so for a stated period. The decisive battle is fought and the survivors return to their homes crowned

as heroes, whether victorious or not. No less deserving of the hero's laurel is the brave fellow whose whole life is devoted to the defense of the community, and many a one bears scars of which the most valiant warrior might be proud.

     One of the most familiar figures in the history of the city of Trenton is Charles H. McChesney, Chief of Police.

     He is a native of New Jersey and was born at Cranbury, a small village near this city, in January, 1831, where he received his early education in a private school of that place.

     Chief McChesney learned the tailoring business when he was a young man,

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and later in life carried on an extensive merchant tailoring business for himself, being counted a success in business.

     It is a well-known fact that Chief McChesney is politically affiliated with the Democratic party, although he has taken no active interest or part in politics since his connection with the Police Department, which dates from April 20th, 1881. During this long interim he has seen many changes in the city's government, but his services have been so completely satisfactory to all that while others have come and gone he has still remained faithfully administering the duties of his office.

     Few public servants enjoy more complete confidence and good-will of the community, especially of those with whom he comes in daily contact. While a strict disciplinarian, he has always been noted as a just man, and it is a well-known fact in the Department that those who pay strict attention to their duties and observe the rules laid down for their government have nothing to fear from Chief McChesney.

     This keen sense of justice and equity in dealing with subordinates has gone far to advance the internal peace and harmony of the Department, where otherwise there might be friction and uncertainty in the minds of the men.

     The Chief is ripe in knowledge pertaining to constabulary details and has been a close student of the several police systems in vogue in different cities of the country. He has labored diligently in bringing the Trenton Police Department up to its present high state of efficiency, which is well-known to be one of the best in the United States.

     Recent statistics prove this fact and the Department has come in fir high praise from experts, who have investigated its working with a view to benefiting others.

     In private life he has a great many close and warm friends among the substantial people of the city, and he takes a warm interest in the welfare of Trenton.

     He is a member of the Superior Officer's Association and is the treasurer of the local organization.

JOHN J. CLEARY, Captain First Precinct.

     A conspicuous figure in the Trenton Police Department is Captain John J. Cleary, who was born in England, July 22d, 1852, of Irish parentage. He received the rudiments of education in the Cobridge Parochial School, but being of a studious and inquiring nature from his early youth, has acquired, by reading and observation, a practical knowledge, which serves him to good purpose in the details of a busy public life.      At the age of ten years he entered the potteries of his native place with the intention of making this his business, as his father had, and continued in this avocation until his removal to this country with his parents in the spring of 1864. The family settle in Trenton, and he again became a potter's apprentice, with the intention of learning the trade of a presser. After two years' application in this field he became dissatisfied with the calling and secured employment at the Trenton Iron Works, remaining there until spring of 1881, acquiring in that time a thorough knowledge of the art of refining iron. This business was more to his liking and he applied himself so assiduously to perfecting himself in its mysteries that he gained the good-will and confidence of his employer, who offered him the superintendence of that particular branch of the industry,

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     ;Having other plans in view, he declined the promotion, but continued in the service, making an intelligent study at the same time, and rendering his services so valuable that when the panic of '72 came with its depressing effect on trade in all lines he, although a young man and drawing a liberal salary, was retained while other and older men were dismissed under the enforced curtailment.

     From early youth he was recognized as a leader among men and instinctively took his place at their head in movements of both a public and private nature.
     In recognition of his executive ability and talent for organization, he was made Secretary of the local branch of the Amalgamated Association of Iron Workers of the United States, the headquarters of which were located in Pittsburg [sic], which city he visited as a delegate in August, 1880, representing all branches of the Association east of Philadelphia.
     He steadily grew in prominence in the organization, and his identification with it and his devotion to the interest of labor made him so conspicuous in industrial circles that it led to a disagree-

ment between himself and the superintendent of the manufacturing concern with which he was identified, and ultimately to the severance of his relationship with it.
     The opportunity was given to him to renounce the Association and his allegiance thereto, or to suffer dismissal and the weight of displeasure of the operators. He chose the latter, and the injustice was so keenly felt by him brothers in the ranks of labor that it was suggested a rebuke be administered in the way of strike.
     To the credit of Mr. Cleary, he refused to take part in the proposed movement, realizing that it would entail misery and privation on his fellow-workmen, many of who could ill-afford to make such a sacrifice.

       In taking this stand he proved himself a man of honor, devoid of selfishness, and the esteem in which he was universally held was still further strengthened.

       In looking around for some temporary employment an opportunity was presented to him to become a member of the police force as a Patrolman. It was

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May 4th, 1881, that he became identified with the Department, although there was some opposition offered at the time on account of his identification with temperance organizations, it being known he was a member of the Y. M. C. T. A. League and had served as President for two years.

     The opposition failed to prevent his election by council, and he served in this capacity from 1881 to April 16th, 1886.

     It was at this time that council increased the force and added to the superior

list two officers, with the rank of Lieutenant, one of which he became after a hard battle, in which worth was the prime factor.

     It will be remembered that in 1888 the city of Trenton was composed of seven wards. To it was annexed the township of Millham, which became the Eighth ward, and the borough of Chambersburg, which now comprised the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh wards.

     This addition to the city made it necessary to create the Second Precinct

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Station and District, and the two Lieutenants alternated between these two stations. On April 3rd, 1890, he was assigned to regular duty at the First Precinct, and on February 25th, 1892, according to existing law, was made Captain, a title and office which he has held since.

     A copy of the order giving him command of the First District follows:

                                                                                      Trenton, N. J., April 3d, 1890.
To Charles H. McChesney, Chief of Police:
     The Board of Police Commissioners do hereby order that the permanent charge of the First Precinct District be assigned to Lieutenant John J. Cleary.
                                                                            E. C. Stahl, Secretary of the Board.

     It was thought to be bad politics to keep the police force in longer than three years, there being so many clamoring for the position on the outside that the Democratic members of council in Spring of 1884 partially decided to make a change, being desirous of securing some member with experience to be its head, and tendered the position to Captain Cleary, which he refused for the reason that

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the change would remove the entire Department. There was an impression abroad that he was at the head of the scheme for his own advancement, but, notwithstanding, his friends in council named him in caucus as their choice, which resulted in the present incumbent getting the nomination by a majority of two votes.

     Captain Cleary is a man of great force of character and determination in the pursuance of those principles he considers right. Unmoved by prejudice or passion, he is the ideal police officer, administering the duties of his trust with fairness and discretion, at all times placing duty above every other consideration.

     Of dignified and manly bearing, affable in manner, conservative in speech and prompt in action, he commands the respect and confidence of those who are under him, as well as the public, whose faithful servant he is at all times.

     Few men in the police service of any of the larger cities to-day have a better or more practical idea of police organization and discipline: in fact, the system under which the Department operates to-day is of his creation and is one of a number of competitive plans which were presented the Board Police Commissioners, at their invitation, for the improvement of the Department. In the following pages this system is carefully explained.

     He is not a man to seek position or advancement, as he has had many opportunities to better himself, politically and otherwise, but has contented himself with the faithful prosecution of the duties of his office.

     In politics he is a Democrat, although never having been accused of offensive partisanship. In 1874 he was elected judge of election in the Third Precinct of the Third ward and in 1875 sat as judge of the election in that precinct during the special election to vote on the State Constitution.

     Captain Cleary is a married man, with a large family growing up, in which he takes great pleasure, giving them all his time not spent in the service of the Department. His amusements and inclinations are of an intellectual order, and he is especially fond of music, with which he brightens the home-circle, being an excellent violinist. Accompanied by his daughters on the piano, he finds pleasant recreation and rest, and the austere police official is laid aside with his uniform.

     In private life he finds time also to cultivate many warm friends, and in earlier life was a patron of legitimate sports. He is well remembered as the captain of the fast yacht Kate Sampson, of which he was part owner and a member of the Hibernia Yacht Club, also the Red Stockings Athletic Club, which has a flourishing existence and fine club-house between the years 1870 and 1878. He was president of this organization for two terms, during which time they maintained the famous Red Stockings Baseball Club, which defeated all the clubs of the State and many from other states.

     The onerous duties of his office and increasing family ties have forced him to abandon active participation in these pleasures, although he is a firm believer in their usefulness.

     Captain Cleary is the Vice President of the Superior Officer's Police Protective Association of New Jersey and takes a prominent and active part in its promotion.

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CAPTAIN WILLIAM HARTMAN

     Seldom does it occur to a biographer in sketching the business career of a man to begin with the record at so early an age as in the case of Captain William Hartman, of the Second Precinct.

     Born at North Crosswicks, Mercer county, N. J., May 6th, 1849, all the school education young Hartman acquired was up to the time he was nine years

of age, when he began driving a delivery wagon and was thus employed for a period of three years, when he went off to learn the trade of a butcher. After an apprenticeship lasting seven years, he went in business for himself at North Crosswicks, which he conducted successfully until a desire to enlarge the field of his activity led him to remove to Trenton, which he did on October 10th, 1871, locating in the Sixth ward, where he has resided ever since. On May 3d, 1876, Mr. Hartman was appointed a Patrolman by the Common Council. At that time Charles P. Brown was City Marshal. He at once selected Mr. Hartman as one of his aids, which position he retained during the remainder of Brown's term of office, some four years, when

Charles Thorn succeeded in the Marshalship. At Mr. Hartman's own request he was made a Patrolman in May, 1880.
     In May, 1881, the Police Department being at that time "in politics," the Democrats gained control of the Council, and in the general shake-up, Hartman being a Republican, was dropped.
     Shortly afterward he was appointed a letter-carrier and remained in the Post Office Department until the charter election in the spring of 1887. At this time Col. Eckford Moore, a Cleveland appointee, was Postmaster and partisanship ran high. It becoming known that a Democrat letter-carrier had gone into the Fifth ward to electioneer, in order to make a test case, Hartman threw

down his bag and went into the Sixth ward and did yeoman service for his party, maintaining that a Republican had the same rights as a Democrat. Refusing to yield his point and return to work until after the polls closed, he was dismissed from Government service for offensive partisanship.

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     As to the efficiency of his work in this contest, it may be stated that his party carried the Sixth ward, although by a bare majority of three. As the Sixth ward went, so went the city, the Democrats were routed and the Republicans again took control.

     At the annual Republican caucus meeting of the council held shortly after, Mr. Hartman received the unanimous nomination for the office of Chief of Police, which position was held at the time by the present incumbent, Charles H. McChesney.

     Chief McChesney thereupon obtained an injunction against council, preventing them from deposing him, claiming his right to hold the office under the Tenure of Office Act. The case was taken to the Supreme Court, which held him to be right.

     At this time the commissioned officers of the Police Department consisted of a Chief and First and Second Lieutenants.

     By the resignation of John E. Lane, First Lieutenant, a vacancy was created in the Department, which was filled by the appointment of Mr. Hartman, who entered the service under the title of Lieutenant, which was later changed to Captain by the Board of Police Commissioners February 25th, 1892.

     That Captain Hartman has the social instinct developed in a high degree, is attested by the fact that he is an active member of several prominent secret societies, among with are: Mercer Lodge, No. 34 I.O.O.F.; Hamilton Lodge 91, K of P.; St. John's Commandery, No. 2, Knights of Malta; America Council, No. 107, O.U.A.M., Srs., and a member in Company B, Seventh Regiment, N.G.N.J. He has also been on the Regimental Team of Sharphshooters since 1880 and on the New Jersey State Rifle Team eight years out of the last ten. He is also President of the Mercer County Superior Officer's Association, Chairman of the Committee on Legislation and Organization of the New Jersey State Association and Drillmaster of the Trenton Police Department.

     Captain Hartman's connection with the Department has been marked by the zealous efforts he has put forth toward its improvement and his great personal pride in advancing all measures which have had for their object the betterment of the police service.

     A strict disciplinarian and jealous to a fault of the good name and honor of the Department, he requires that unswerving observance of the rules and regulations upon which its efficiency depends. His knowledge of the duties of the Patrolman, gained from years of practical experience, render him familiar with all their requirements and enable him to exercise a wise discretion in the treatment of all the men under his charge.

DETECTIVE SERGEANT CHARLES H. PILGER.

     Detective Sergeant Charles H. Pilger requires no introduction to Trenton people. He was born in this city July 2d, 1854, and was educated in the public schools, also having careful private instruction.

     He learned the business of chainmaking in his early youth and followed it for some years. He became identified with the Police Department May 4th, 1881, in the capacity of Patrolman, and on the nineteenth of December, 1888, was made a special officer in citizen's dress, which was virtually the beginning of the Detective system. It might be interesting to note that on the very day he was detailed to special duty the A.G. Richey burglary occurred, the perpetrators of which were afterwards apprehended and put away for ten years each.

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     February 26th, 1891, the position of Detective was formally created and he was the first appointee, Henry Leahy, since deceased, was also appointed, and together they did splendid service for the city.

     He is a quiet and unassuming gentleman in his demeanor, with a faculty of making friends in all branches of society.

     It would be difficult to find a man more perfectly fitted for the position of Detective, owing to his wide experience in police duty and peculiar adaptability in ferreting out criminals.

     He takes an intense and conscientious interest in his calling, and has been the means of ridding society of many of its most objectionable members.

     His life has been full of excitement and interest, and those who know him say he has the courage of a lion and is a stranger to fear.

      He takes pride in keeping up his athletic exercise and physical power has figured prominently in many of his arrests.

     Detective Pilger is a married man of family and is a member of the Superior Officers' Association.

DETECTIVE SERGEANT LIBSON R. APPLEGATE.

     Detective Sergeant Libson R. Applegate was born at Trenton, N.J., March 22d, 1861, and was educated in the public schools of this city.

     His first employment was in the potteries of this place, afterwards as an operative in the rubber industry, a calling which he mastered in detail, and at one time was superintendent of a rubber factory here.

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     He was appointed Patrolman April 27th, 1892, First Precinct, and was raised to the rank of Detective Sergeant August 29th, 1894.

     Detective Applegate is a man of commanding appearance and is credited with great personal courage. He has proved his efficiency on many occasions ans is enthusiastic in the performance of his duties. He is a man well adapted to mingle with the people and is well cast for the position of Detective, which requires tact, intelligence and a wide knowledge of human nature.

     He is a man of family and has a wide circle of friends among the best citizens.. He is also a member of the Superior Officers' Association.

SERGEANT FRANK VAN HORN.

     Sergeant Frank Van Horn is one of the best known men in the Trenton Police Department and is a native of Yardley, Pa., where he was born May

19th, 1853. He comes of sturdy German stock and is the son of Thomas S. Van Horn, formerly Supervisor of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company. He was educated in the public schools of Trenton and learned the trade of chainmaker, a calling which he followed for about ten years,

     His identification with the Police Department commenced the sixth of May, 1879, when he was elected Patrolman by the Common Council and remained a member of the Department until May, 1881, at which time the Democrats got control of council and removed the Republican force. May 17th, 1887, he was elected City Marshal and on the nineteenth day of July, the same year, was raised to the rank of Sergeant of Police, a position which he has held since then.

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     Sergeant Van Horn is another of the stalwart members of the Department, being a man of more than the average size and power.

     He has figured in a number of sensational arrests and has always acquitted himself with credit.

     He is a member of the Superior Officers` Association and is unmarried.

SERGEANT WILLIAM DETTMAR.

     Seventeen years of unremitting service without an hour's loss of time through sickness and without ever appearing either before the Police Committee of the Common Council or the Police Commissioners to answer a charge

of misconduct is the proud and enviable record of Sergeant William Dettmar of the Second District.

     Mr. Dettmar was born in Germany November 14th, 1857. His first occupation was that of a bread baker, a business which he followed for several years after coming to this country. In September, 1882, he was appointed a Patrolman on the Chambersburg force and in four years became its Chief, which position he held until the consolidation of the borough, when he was made an

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acting Sergeant of the Trenton police and elected regularly on the fifth of February, 1889, by the Common Council.

     There used to be some lively times and hard work for the boys out in old Chambersburg, especially during the reign of terror inaugurated by the notorious "Kelly crowd," one of whose favorite pastimes was that of incendiarism. At one time fires were of almost nightly occurrence, invariably started by the "Kellys" they even going so far as to set fire to the hose-house next to the Second District Station.

     It was through the persistent efforts and unflinching courage of Officer

Dettmar that this bad crowd was broken up and all received sentences in the penitentiary.

SERGEANT JUDSON HINER.

     In Sergeant Judson Hiner the Trenton Police Department has an officer of whom it may be stated, without fulsome flattery, that he stands among those pre-eminent for intelligence and sagacity, and the thoroughness with which he executes the duties imposed upon him. Conservative and fair-minded, just

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     and honorable in his dealings with all, he has won a high place in the esteem of the rank and file of the Department, as well as all good citizens with whom he has come in contact.

     Sergeant Hiner was born in Hunterdon county October 13th, 1859, and came to Trenton with his parents during, the Civil War. After completing his education in the public schools he learned the trade of a rubber worker and followed that occupation until he was appointed a Patrolman on May 12th, 1885

After serving four years in this capacity he was promoted to the position of Sergeant on February 5th, 1889.
     It has falled [sic] to the lot of Sergeant Hiner to become identified with some of the most important cases with which the police have had to deal, notably among them the un- savory Farrel case, which resulted in a sentence of ten years for a heinous assault on a little girl. In working up this case in particular Sergeant Hiner acquitted himself in a manner that brought him the most unbounded praise from the officials of the Department, as well as from the public at large, as he took hold of it after the culprit had

been examined before a justice and discharged for lack of evidence. With scarcely a clue to begin with, he pursued the case untiringly and was rewarded for his efforts in bringing about a conviction and the long sentence as stated above.
     Sergeant Hiner is is a member of no secret society, but stands high in the ranks of the Chambersburg Republican League and is an enthusiastic member of the Y. M. C. A., being strong in his praise of the latter institution for the benefits he de- rives, especially from the gymnasium work. Possessed as he is with the sterling qualities which are so essential in building up a character

and shaping a useful career, it seems imperative that Sergeant Hiner must rise to still greater heights in his chosen field.

SERGEANT WILLIAM ALCUTT.

     Conspicuous among the names of faithful servants of the public that of Sergeant William Alcutt, of the Second District, well deserves a place. Faithfulness and efficiency, the prime qualities of a good officer, are strongly marked in the Sergeant's character, and no member of the force has a cleaner or more honorable record. Born in Solesbury township, Bucks county, Pa., June 20th, 1859, he was educated in the public schools of his native place. For two years

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after he arrived at the age of 18 he was engaged in the business of burning lime in Bucks county, Pa., abandoning this for more congenial employment in the shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at Lambertville, this State. In 1880 Mr. Alcutt removed to Trenton and was promoted to the responsible position of car inspector at Coalport by the Railroad Company, which position he held for seven years, when he received his appointment as a member of the Trenton Police Department. This was on November 1st, 1887, and on February 5th, 1889, he was promoted to his present office.

     In private life the Sergeant is noted for his genial companionship and his devotion to his family. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, Brotherhood of the Union and the Police Superior Officers' Association.

SERGEANT ANDREW SWEENEY.

     One of the old, tried-and-true members of the Department, with eighteen years of continuous service to his credit is Sergeant Andrew Sweeney, of the First District. Sergeant Sweeney was born January 5th, 1835, in Princeton, New Jersey, where he attended school and afterward learned the carpenter trade. On May 4th, 1881, he entered the police service and has proven a faithful, capable and painstaking officer.

SERGEANT MICHAEL McGOWAN.

     As an example of what may be accomplished by strict devotion to duty that of Michael McGowan, Sergeant of the First Precinct, is a notable one, and it is with pleasure that we record the principal events in his history.

     Born in the city of Trenton on the nineteenth day of November, 1847, at an early age he learned the trade of a baker and for a number of years was cracker baker for Adam Exton. In 1874 he went into the tool works, where he spent seven years after mastering a branch of the business, and from there entered the police service May 4th, 1881, as Patrolman.

     After eight years of faithful and efficient duty, he was promoted to his present position on June 1st, 1889.

     Sergeant McGowan is not a member of any society, his inclination being to seek for solace and comfort in his family, being the father of seven living children, several of whom are grown.

     In the performance of the duties of his office Sergeant McGowan has been characterized by the promptness and activity with which he has discharged them, and has well earned the respect of his associates and the confidence of his superiors.

ROUNDSMAN JAMES MULLEN.

     Roundsman James Mullen, of the First District, was born in Trenton March 11th, 1855, and received his education in the public and parochial schools of his native city. His occupation was principally that of a potter before his appointment to the force, which occurred on the nineteenth day of December, 1885. He was promoted to his present position of Roundsman April 1st, 1890.

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ROUNDSMAN JOHN W. ZENKER.

     Roundsman John W. Zenker, of the Second District, was born in Port Jervis, N. Y., May 28th, 1858, attended the schools of Barryville, that State, and came to Trenton in 1873. He soon found employment in the potteries of this city, where he remained for fourteen years, until he was appointed Patrolman, June 2d, 1888, and promoted to Roundsman September 28th, 1896.

ROUNDSMAN PHINNEAS RANDOLPH.

     Roundsman Phinneas Randolph, of the First- District, who has faithfully served the city in the Police Department for the past thirteen years was appointed a Patrolman April 16th, 1886, and promoted to his present position of Roundsman April 1st, 1890.

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       Mr. Randolph was born in Bound Brook, N J., on the twenty-eighth of August, 1841, and came to Trenton when 9 years of age and attended the public schools. His earliest experience was that of a boatman on the Delaware and Raritan Canal. At the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted in Co. K, Ninth N. J., and served from 1861 to 1865 and bears a bayonet wound as a result of a close contest at one time with the enemy.

ROUNDSMAN CORNELIUS J. MCNAMARA.

     Roundsman Cornelius J. McNamara, of the Second District, was born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, on the twenty-seventh of November, 1860, and followed the occupation of a farmer in his native county until his eighteenth year, when he went to Richmond, Va., and was overseer on a plantation for two years. He afterward spent six years in New York City and two years in the agricultural works in this the city of his adoption before his enrollment as a member of the city police. He was appointed Patrolman February 6th, 1889, and advanced to Roundsman April 1st, 1890.


A HISTORICAL SKETCH.

     In the development of the Police Department of the city of Trenton it might almost be said that the laws of evolution have been set aside.

     Instead of the slow, laborious course which those laws usually pursue. a little improvement at a time, here and there, until the concrete is rounded out and brought to a state approaching perfection-the transition from the primitive plan, which had for its head a City Marshal with a few aids, whose principal duties were to attend to the lighting, extinguishing and keeping clean the city lamps, to the present magnificent metropolitan system has been so sudden as to rather come under the head of a revolution.

     In the good, old days of 1799 the City Marshal was required by an ordinance of the Common Council to " carry in his hand a small staff, or wand, similar to those usually carried by a sheriff," and was to walk through the different parts of the city at least once a week hunting for idle and disorderly persons; also to enforce the laws relative to the prevention of swine running at large, which was against the dignity and peace of the community. In those halcyon days the marshal might discover that a malefactor whom he had arrested for breaking and entering had a letter " T " branded in his hand, denoting that he had been once before convicted of the same offence. If found guilty, a letter " R " would then be branded on his fore head, and if convicted a third time would be summarily put to death as incorrigible. Another class of criminals held in much abhorrence [sic] in those days were children above sixteen years of age, " who, being of sufficient understanding, shall smite or curse their natural father or mother, except provoked thereunto and forced for their safe preservation from death or maiming, upon the complaint, or proof of said father or mother, or either of them, they shall be put to death."

     "Woe betide the belated citizen who tarried upon the streets after 9 o'clock at night, or whose convivial spirits and love of good cheer betrayed him into

20


  

lingering in the tap-house after that unseemly hour, for, if discovered, neither bribery or bail could prevent his spending the remainder of the night in the watch-house and, appearing at court in the morning, to he bound over for trial for his breach of good order.

     History records but little of note in the lives or the administrations of the various incumbents of the marshallship, each seeming to have followed the even tenor of his way and living up to the slight requirements of the office, fulfilling his duties perfunctorily, all that was expected of him.

     No record seems to have been kept of their names even, until 1854, when the office was held by John Q. Carman, who was succeeded by Thomas F. Wagner

in 1855. Samuel Mulford, the next, he continuing until 1859, when J. M. Bennet followed for one year, then James F. Starin, from 1860 to 1865; then Caleb C. VanSickle in 1865 and 1866; then James H. McGuire in 1867; Joseph J. Hawk, '68, '69, '70; Matthew Moses, 1871 ; Charles Jones, 1872; John Tyrrell, 1873, '74, '75; Charles P. Brown, 1876. After this Charles Thorn was marshal until succeeded by Charles H. McChesney, the last to hear the title, it being abolished in 1886.

     It was not until 1875, when Charles P. Brown, next to the last to hold the office of City Marshal, that the rule requiring the Patrolman to take care of the city lamps was abolished. After that they were simply required to report

21


  

neglect in lighting. At that time the night men went on at 7 o'clock in the evening and were off at 6 in the morning, the day force beginning at 8, thus leaving the city without police protection for the two hours pending the change from day to night duty.

     In 1874, by an ordinance of the Common Council, the Police Department was reorganized and the title of Chief of Police was conferred upon the marshal, whose retinue consisted of two aids and fourteen policemen.

     Under this dispensation the Mayor was the head of the Police Department, with authority to superintend and direct its affairs generally, to see that the officers and members were prompt and faithful in the discharge of their duties and to take such measures as he deemed necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order and the enforcement of the laws and ordinances of the city.

     The marshal, as Chief of Police, was subordinate to the Mayor and the chief executive officer of the Police Department. It was his duty to carry out the instructions of the Mayor, to keep the records, registers, books and reports concerning the affairs and operations of the department and bear the responsibility for its efficiency, general conduct and good order. The aids to the marshal were required to perform the duties of roundsmen and act as special officers at the Police Station and Police Court.

     The regulations affecting the patrolmen varied little from those which are in operation to-day. They were enjoined to conduct themselves in a gentle- manly and dignified manner, to temper their actions in the enforcement of their duties with discretion and good judgment. and to perambulate their beats constantly during their hours of duty, keeping a vigilant watch for fires and offenses against persons and property and against the public peace.

     The history of the Department of Police may be divided into two epochs. The first covers that period in its existence when it was absolutely and wholly the creature of political domination and influence, and during which its personnel changed from time to time with the rise and fall of either party. It was not required then, neither was there an established rule, that a member of the force should have any special fitness for the position he occupied.

     A good friend among the powers that happened to be was all that was necessary, and it can readily be understood that discipline and system were unknown factors.

     Each man was assigned to a certain district, which he perambulated in a hap-hazzard [sic] manner. He came and went as he saw fit and largely consulted only his own wishes and convenience in the discharge of his duties. According to the power and tenacity of his friend in office it was more or less useless or even dangerous to call him to account for any breach of police etiquette. or glaring act of neglect of duty.

     The manner of selecting the members of the police force was by election by Common Council, municipal law providing that the police force should correspond in number with that body.

     This enabled the members of the controlling party to name not less than one and sometimes two or more men for this position.

     In making these selections it is a pity to record that the welfare of the Department was seldom considered and political debts and personal obligations were thus discharged at the cost of the city's protection.

     It must not be inferred from this that all the appointments were bad ones, for such was not the case, as many good men and faithful servants were

22


  

to be found among the number, some of whom are still serving the city with honor and credit. The pernicious System, however, permitted many to become members of the Police Department who should never have been allowed to display the badge of authority.

     The nucleus of the present Department. was formed in 1881, when the Democratic party got the control of the Common Council.

     Their first act was to elect a City Marshal under the provisions of the city charter. This occurred the third Monday in April, 1881, and the present incumbent, Charles H. McChesney, was chosen for the stated period of one year.

     Just one month later the police force, which was then made up entirely of Republicans, was removed and Democrats were installed in their places by election, their tenure of office depending on the pleasure of council.

     To make the following statements clear to the reader, we will add that the Democrats remained in control of council up to the spring election of 1887. In the year 1885 the Tenure of Office act was passed by the Legislature and took effect immediately on becoming a law.

     There was some uncertainty at the time as to whether it applied to local governments, unless it was formally recognized and accepted by council. This the Common Council of Trenton took the precaution to do March 20th, 1887, just before the advent of the Republicans into the majority of that body.

     The first. ordinance of the Democratic council affecting the Police Department occurred in the ordinance creating a Chief of Police, which was passed by council April 6th, 1886, a copy of which is printed below:

23


  

A Further Supplement to "An Ordinance to Establish, Regulate and Control a Day and Night Police." passed May 1 1874.

The Inhabitants of the City of Trenton do ordain:
     1.That the Police Department of the City of Trenton shall consist of the Marshal, Chief of Police, two (2) Lieutenants, two (2) Sergeants and twenty five (25) Patrolmen. The Common Council shall, as soon as may be convenient

after the passage of this ordinance, elect by ballot, a Chief of Police (who shall be eligible and may be appointed Marshal), a first and second Lieu- tenant, a first and second Sergeant, and four additional Patrolmen.

     2. That each officer so elected shall be a citizen of the United States and a resident-citizen of the city, able to read and write the English language understandingly; he must be of good moral character, of good health and

25


  

sound body, unconvicted of crime, and who must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor over forty-five (45) years of age.

       3. The Chief of Police shall have all the powers and perform all the duties new required of the Marshal; the Lieutenants and Sergeants shall perform duties as Roundsmen and as special officers at the Police Station, said duties to be prescribed and regulated by the rules, orders and regulations prescribed by the Mayor and the Committee on Police.

       4. That the Marshal shall receive as compensation for his services the sum of fifty dollars per annum; the Chief of Police for the faithful performance of his duties shall receive as compensation for his services the sum of nine hundred and fifty dollars per annum, to be paid in monthly payments by orders drawn on the City Treasurer; and the Lieutenants, for the faithful performance of their duties, shall receive as compensation for their services the sum of eight hundred dollars each per annum; and the Sergeants for the faithful performance of their duties shall receive as compensation for their services the sum of seven hundred and fifty dollars each per annum, and the Patrolmen, for the faithful performance of their duties, shall receive as compensation for their services the sum of seven hundred and twenty dollars each per annum, to be paid in equal monthly payments by orders drawn on the City Treasurer.

       5. That so much of the ordinance to which this is a supplement as conflicts herewith, be and the same is hereby repealed.

       6. That this ordinance shall take effect immediately.
       Passed April 6, 1886.

       Immediately on the organization of the new Republican council, which came into power April 18th, 1887, an attempt was made to get control of the appointments in the Police Department by challenging the legality of the ordinance creating the office of Chief of Police.

       It took the form of an ordinance, which was introduced by Mr. Philip Kulp, and contemplated the removal of Chief McChesney from his office, the repeal of the ordinance creating the office which was to be transformed to its original status and title, that of marshal.

       This ordinance was passed at the meeting of council May 3d, 1884, and was a repeal of the ordinance of April 6th, 1886, which was a supplement to the ordinance of May 1st, 1874.

       The minutes of the meeting of council at that date show that the matter was referred to the City Solicitor for an opinion as to the legality of the ordinance. Judge William M. Lanning was at that time City Solicitor and his voluminous opinion also appears on the minute-books of council, in which he set forth that the ordinance came within the limits of the law and the power of that body.

       At the same meeting of council Mr. Kulp introduced a further supplement to the ordinance, the intent of which was to repeal the ordinance of March 30th, 1887, which, it will be remembered, was an acceptance by council of the provisions of the Tenure of Office act of 1885.

       This ordinance went through the regular course, was reported favorably and passed May 17th, 1887.

       It might be well to explain that this repealer was brought on as a retaliation against the members of the Police Department who took issues with their chief by raising money and employing eminent counsel for his defense. They were represented by G. D. W. Vroom and Mercer Beasley, Jr., who

27


  

served on the Mayor a writ of certiorari. Council took up the gauntlet and ordered the City Solicitor to defend the city of Trenton in the suit.

     It was at this meeting also that council elected to the office of City Marshal Frank VanHorn, who, three months later, was regularly appointed to the position of Sergeant to fill a vacancy.

     It may be interesting to note that City Marshal VanHorn never entered into any duties while City Marshal other than to report at headquarters and await the decision of the court.

     May 17th, 1887, the Republican council, still irritated at the failure of their plans and making no progress to remove Chief McChesney from his office, by resolution ordered the City Treasurer to pay no salary to the Chief of Police pending the litigation then in progress.

     It was fully a year before the matter was closed and the Chief had the satisfaction of drawing his back pay in a lump.

     June 2d, 1887, another writ of certiorari was served on the Mayor to remove an ordinance of Common Council by the attorneys of John J. Cleary and William N. Hibbs, who represented the members of the police force, this in the defense of their positions, which were threatened by the act of council repealing the Tenure of Office provision. This movement was independent of the Chief of Police. This suit the council again ordered the City Solicitor to defend.

     Both suits of "The State, John J. Cleary and William N. Hibbs, Prosecutor, v. The Inhabitants of the City of Trenton," and "The State, Charles H. McChesney, Prosecutor, v. The inhabitants of the City of Trenton," were argued at the November term, 1887, before Justices Depue, VanSyckel and Knapp by G. D. W. Vroom for the plaintiffs and William M. Lanning for the defendants, with the result that the ordinances of May 3d and May 17th were decided illegal and should be set aside.

     The following quotations are from Vroom's Reports, Volume 21:
     " No. 1.-The seventeenth section of the charter of the city of Trenton provides the mode in which the Common Council shall appoint the police force, and the twenty-fifth section authorizes the Common Council to fix by ordinance the term for which they shall hold their office.

     " No. 2.-The Common Council, in the exercise of its power, having provided that policemen shall hold their office during good behavior, they cannot be removed by force of the act of February 23d, 1886, for any cause other than the causes for removal specified in said act."

     " The Chief of Police of the city of Trenton, as a member of the Police Department, is entitled to hold his office during good behavior and can be removed only for causes specified in the act of February 23d, 1886."

     Thus ended the most important event in the history of the Trenton Police Department, and it was a happy day for every member of the same, as well as the citizens, who unite in the hope that the Tenure of Office provision will never again be tampered with.

     May 2d, 1885, an act was passed in the State Legislature relating to the establishment of Police Commissioners in cities of a certain class, of which Trenton was one. It contemplated that the Police Department, its management and control, should be taken out of politics entirely and that a board of four Police Commissioners, equally composed of the two political parties, should administer its affairs without fear or favor.

     Before this law could have a local bearing it was necessary to place it before the people for their approval or rejection.

29


  

     It was not until the year 1889 that it was finally agreed by the members of both parties to place it on the ticket, which was done at the spring election of 1889 and was overwhelmingly carried.

     According to the provisions of the law, A. A. Skirm, who was then Mayor of the city, appointed the following gentlemen to the office of Police Commissioner: Charles A. May, President; Lawrence Farrell, Joseph Rice and William H. Earley. They organized May 23d, 1889.

     The term of office was placed by law at four years, and it was arranged that one new member should be chosen each year to take the place of the one retiring , therefore, there were three short terms in the first board, of one, two and three years, filled by Farrell, Rice and Earley, respectively.

     The effect on the Department for the better was at once noticeable, and in a short time it reached a higher state of usefuness[sic] and efficiency than had ever been known before.

     Objectionable members of the force were gradually removed as cause asserted itself and their places were filled by men who were in every way better fitted for the positions.

     From the questionable collection of political appointees it soon became a magnificent body of men, well qualified, both mentally and physically, for this important trust, and as time went on it still further progressed and improved.

     It was destined that politics should again show its hand and the State Legislature should be the tool thereof.

     A law was passed in 1892 which legislated out of existence the power of the Police Commissioners in cities of Trenton's class. It also removed the Police Judges and provided that the Governor should appoint a Police Justice, who should serve for the term of five years at a salary of $2,000 per year, also

31


  

conferring unusual power on said Police Justice, who acted with the Mayor and named the Commissioners each year as this office came up to be filled, thus giving him unlimited influence in the deliberations of that body, although he had no vote.

     The law was aimed at the city of Camden by those who framed it and were responsible for its passage, but, unfortunately, it affected Trenton as well.

     The coveted appointment was secured by John Caminade, who had no vote in the Board of Police Commissioners that year, but on February 28th, 1893, the Legislature further enacted that the Police Justices in cities of this class should have a vote and he became president of the board, which still further augmented his power and influence.

     The department groaned under the infliction of this new menace to the fine organization which had been built up, but was fortunately released by the legislature, which, in the following year, again changed its complexion and proceeded to undo all that had been done by its predecessor in this and many other cases.

     It will thus be gathered from a perusal of the above that the present system of government and control is perfect and satisfactory to the people, as well as just and equitable for the officers and men. The adoption of the act of 1885 by the people was in reality the turning point in the history of the Department, its history, or rather that part which is a credit to itself and the city, commences in 1889. No records are kept in the archives of the Department beyond that time, but from its commencement the daily routine of events have been most carefully preserved, and any question touching on any point of the service can be instantly answered by referring to the books.

     For the convenience of the reader, the legislative act of 1885 and its supplement passed February 23d, 1886, is appended. The time spent in perusing it will not be lost.

     An act respecting police departments of cities and regulating the tenure and terms of office of officers and men employed in said departments.
                                                                                   Approved March 25, 1885.

     [Sec. 1 amended and supplied by Sec. 58.]
     54. Sec. 2. That it shall be lawful, for the better government and discipline of the police departments in the cities of the state, for the municipal authority or authorities in any city, whose duty it is or may become to provide for, regulate or manage a police department in such city, from time to time to prescribe and establish such just rules and regulations respecting such department.

     55. Sec. 3. That each member and officer of the police force shall be a citizen of the United States and a resident-citizen for two years of the city in which he is appointed, able to read and write the English language understandingly, he must be of good moral character, of good health and sound body.

     [Sec 4 amended and supplied by Sec. 59.]
     56. Sec. 5. That no person, whether officer or employee, in the police department of any city, shall be removed from office or employment therein except for just cause, as provided in the first section of this act, then only after written charge or charges of the cause or causes of complaint shall have been preferred against any such officer or employee, signed by the person or persons making such charge or charges and filed in the office of the municipal officer, officers or board having charge of the department in which the complaint

33


  

arises, and after the said charge or charges have been publicly examined into by the appropriate municipal board, officer or authority, upon such reasonable notice to the person charged, and in such manner of examination as the rules and regulations governing the same may prescribe, it being the intent of this act to give every person against whom charges for any cause may be preferred under this act a fair trial upon said charges, and every reasonable opportunity to make his defense, if any he has or chooses to make, and the officer, board or body having power to try such charges shall have power to issue writs of subpoena to compel the attendance of witnesses, which writs shall be served in the same manner as subpoenas issued out of the court for the trial of small causes, and every person who neglects or refuses to obey the command of such writ shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five dollars, to be sued for in the corporate name of the city in any court of competent jurisdiction, and the penalty when collected shall be aid into the poor fund of such city.

     57. Sec. 6. That all acts and parts of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act be and the same are hereby repealed, and that this act shall take effect immediately.


Supplement.
                                                                                   Passed February 23, 1886.

     58. Sec. 1. That section one of the act to which this a supplement shall hereafter read as follows:
     [That in the several cities of the state, whether the police departments are under the control of commissioners or otherwise, the officers and men employed by municipal authority in the police department of any city shall severally hold their respective offices and continue in their respective employment as such municipal officers and employees during good behavior, efficiency and residence in such city, except where by statute the term of office of any such officer and employee is determined and fixed, and does not depend upon the pleasure of any municipal officer, officers or board authorized to make appointment or employment in said departments; and no person shall be

35


  

removed from office or employment in the police department of any city, or from the police force of any city for political reasons or for any cause than incapacity, misconduct, non-residence or disobedience of just rules and regulations established or which may be established for the police force or police department of such city; provided, that any member of the police force of any city who shall be absent from duty, without just cause, for the term of five days, shall, at the expiration of said five days, cease to be a member of such police force; and provided further, that this act shall not apply in or to cities commonly known as seaside and summer resorts]

Supplement.
                                                                                   Passed April 6, 1886.

     59. Sec. 1. That section four of the act to which this is amendatory be amended so as to read as follows:
     [That no person shall be appointed an officer or member of the police force in any city who has ever been convicted of a crime, who is less than twenty-one years or over fifty-five years of age at the time of his appointment]



A REMARKABLE POLICE SYSTEM.

     Experts who make a study of the police systems and their successful operation in the larger cities pronounce the Trenton Department a model of completeness in its personnel, system and equipment. It is doubtful if there is a Department in the country in a city of this size that has made such a favor- able record, or runs with so little friction.

     There are several causes which have contributed to this result; principally the utter absence of politics and the long service of the men in command.

     The department is controlled by a non-partisan Police Board appointed by the Mayor for a period of four years each, and consists to-day of Charles P. Kitson, President; William J. Convery, Robert Surtees and Harry S. Maddock, all of whom are well-known business men.

     Chief Charles H. McChesney has been at the head of the department for eighteen years, and the conscientious manner in which he has discharged his duties has won for him the esteem of all classes, while in Captains John J. Cleary and William Hartman he has had the assistance of able and trust- worthy subordinates, well qualified to enforce the rules of the department and to keep it up to its present high state of effectiveness.

     The Trenton police force at present consists of eighty men, detailed as follows:

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First
Precinct
Second
Precinct
Chief
1
0
Captains
1
1
Sergeants
3
3
Detectives
2
0
Roundsmen
2
2
Patrol Drivers
2
0
Chancemen
1
0
Patrolmen
32
28
Surgeon
1
0
Superintendent of telegraph
   1   
   0   
46
34

     To secure a position on the police force of Trenton it is necessary for the applicant to pass a rigid Civil Service examination; he must be a physically- perfect man and be possessed of a high degree of intelligence. This examination secures a police force of thoroughly able men, and one has only to glance at any one of the members of the Department to-day to understand that these rules are rigidly enforced.

     The unusual size and fine appearance of the men has long been a matter of comment and the contractor of the uniforms of the Department has pronounced it to be the best lot of men, physically, in the United States doing

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police duty. This from a man who is dealing with police departments from Maine to California is a flattering compliment.

     Another safe-guard is the Tenure of Office law under which the Department is conducted, which insures that no removals shall be made, except for infraction of the rules, and not then until after a fair trial.

     The Commissioners studiously avoid everything of a political nature in the control and management of the Department. This discipline of the force is of the highest order, being maintained by an unfaltering enforcement of the rules. Secure from political influence, the men are conscious of the fact that their positions depend absolutely upon obedience to rules and strict adherence to duty.

     In Captain John J. Cleary the Department has the benefit of the experience and judgment of one of the most practical and thoroughly-informed police disciplinarians in the country. He has been closely identified with the Department since 1881 and has made an intelligent study of its requirements. The system under which the Department is now conducted and which has proven so eminently satisfactory is the creature of his brain. It was put into practice February 5th, 1893, and worked so smoothly that it was permanently adopted.

     It is a system of " watches," or " reliefs," and is very easily understood. A glance at the following diagram shows how it works with a total force of eight patrolmen. It can be arranged as easily for 1,000 men:

     In the First precinct there are thirty-two patrolmen and the "reliefs" are divided as follows:

7 A.M. to 3 P.M. .............................. 8 men.
3 P.M. to 11 P.M. ............................. 8 men.
11 P.M. to 7 A.M. ............................ 16 men.

     Four of the men on the first or 7 A. M. relief also go on duty from 7 P. M. to 11 P. M., so that between those hours the patrol force consists of twelve men. The same system is followed in the Second precinct with twenty-eight patrolmen.

     The figures in the table, from 1 to S, represent the numbers of the patrol- men. It will be observed that in the first shift Patrolmen Nos. 3 and 4, who have been on the 3 P. M. relief, succeed Nos. 1 and 2 on the 7 A. M. relief; Nos. 3 and 4 are succeeded on the 3 P. M. relief by Nos. 5 and 6, from the 11 P. M. relief ; Nos. 7 and 8 remain another week on the 11 P. M. relief and are joined by Nos. 1 and 2, from 7 A. M. relief. The shifts are

41


  

made in the same rotation every week, and thus every patrolman on the force serves two weeks out of every four on the 11 P. M. relief, and one week out of very four on each the 7 A. M. and the 3 P. M. relief. Half of the patrol- men on the 7 A. M. relief also go on duty from 7 P. M. to 11 P. M., thus putting in four extra hours daily every eighth week. In our illustrative table it will be observed that Patrolman No. 1 puts in this extra service the first week, and the shifts work so that he is not called upon for similar service until the ninth Week. By this system the four extra hours daily for one week devolve upon a certain patrolman only once in eight weeks, and he, therefore, puts in but twenty-eight extra hours every eight weeks. The twenty-eight extra hours are more than made good to the patrolman, when, in every eighth

week, he is shifted from the 7 A. M. to the 11 P. M. relief ; then he lays off from 3 P. M. on Saturday until 11 P. M. on Sunday, or for thirty-two hours. This shift from the 7 A. M. to the 11 P . M. relief occurs twice in eight weeks for every patrolman, but as half of the patrolmen on the 7 A. M. relief serve on the extra watch from 7 P. M. to 11 P. M., the thirty-two-hour lay-off only comes once in eight Weeks for each man.

     Capt. Cleary has also devised a patrolman's time-table, which is an elaborate affair, showing the time for traversing every "beat" in the city. Trenton patrolmen are required to travel on a time schedule the same as railroad trains. The captain's time-table denotes the exact minute that a patrolman must leave a certain point on his "beat," the exact minute he must reach the end of the "beat" and the exact time at which he must make intermediate

43


  

points. In this respect a check is kept upon the patrolmen by the sergeants and the patrol signal-boxes, from which the men must report at stated intervals. If a patrolman is found " off time " by a sergeant or by a delay of his telegraphic report, it is presumed that something has happened and he is promptly looked up. This time-table idea is a very good thing to keep the patrolman constantly in the discharge of his duty and, furthermore, it enables the officers in command to locate every man on the force at any minute of the day or night.


Rules and Regulations.

     The successful construction and maintenance of all perfect-working organization depends upon the formulation and execution of intelligently- devised rules and regulations controlling every feature of the structure, from its foundation to the manifold details of its operation.

     The rules for the discipline and government of the Trenton Police Department, as adopted by the Police Commissioners, begin with the qualifications of applicants for appointments, which provide that: The applicant must be not less than five feet and seven inches in his stocking feet. Breast measure to be no less than thirty-five inches. Difference in breast measure between forced expiration and a full inspiration to be not less than two inches. Age to be not under twenty-one and not exceeding forty-five years. Weight to be not under 150 pounds and not over 200 pounds. To be able to read and write the English language. To have been a citizen of the United State[sic] at least two years. To have been a resident of the city of Trenton at least five years next preceding his appointment. Never to have been convicted of any crime. To be of good moral character. To be of good health and sound in mind and body. Applicants for appointments to membership on the police force must present their petition upon a regular form furnished by the secretary of the Commissioners and verified by an affidavit of no less than two citizens of good standing, who must certify that they are personally acquainted with the applicant and know him to be a man of good moral character, of sober and industrious habits; that they have never heard of him to be guilty or convicted of any crime, and that to their personal knowledge the applicant has been a resident of the city of Trenton for a period of five years next preceding the writing of the certificate.

     The applicant is then required to present to the secretary of the Commissioners in person his application, signed in his own handwriting and be sworn and examined according to the following questions:
              What is your name?
              When was you born?
              Where?
              Where do you live?
              Are you a citizen of the United States and how long?
              How long have you been a resident of the city?
              Are you married or single?
              What family have you?

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              What is your occupation?
              Have you ever been convicted of any crime?
              Have you paid or promised to pay, given or promised to give any money or other consideration to any person, directly or indirectly, for any aid or influence toward procuring your appointment?

     The penalty for acquiring a position on the force through any false representations is immediate dismissal.

     A searching medical examination before the surgeon of the Department is next required. The applicant's antecedents [sic] are inquired into minutely, careful tests are made of the vital organs, the functions of the brain and nervous system are noted to determine any defects, the general conditions of the organs of sight are ascertained to discover the quickness and accuracy in discriminating colors and distances, and the hearing also tested as to keenness and

correctness in distinguishing degrees and kinds of sounds and the direction from which they come.

RANK.
The several members of the force rank in order as follows:
The Chief.
The Captains.
The Sergeants.
The Patrolmen.
The Chancemen.

THE CHIEF OF POLICE.

Under the direction of the Board of Police Commissioners the Chief has

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command and full control of the Department and is responsible for its efficiency. His office is the headquarters of the Department and he is considered to be on duty at all time, unless sick or absent from the city. It is the duty of the Chief to arrange the beats and detail the men for duty in such manner and at such times as will best conduce to the efficiency of the Department and to issue from time to time such orders and make and enforce such rules as may be necessary in conducting its affairs. Whenever any arrest has been made or important service rendered by the Department, or any of its members, it becomes the duty of the Chief to secure it and report it to the Commissioners. He is also required to keep the subordinate officers informed of all matters which may be necessary or important for them to know in the discharge of their duties and report to the Commissioners each and every case of dereliction of duty, or of inefficiency coming to his knowledge, and also of com- plaints made to him against members of the Department. All the books and records are kept by the Chief, who is also required to make an annual report to the Commissioners, giving all the details of the condition and operations of the Department.

THE CAPTAINS.

       Under the supervision of the Chief, the Captains have charge of the station-houses and precincts and are responsible for their cleanliness, good order and general condition. The senior Captain is also required to assume the duties during the absence of the Chief. They communicate all orders and general information or instruction to the men previous to their going on duty and examine the dockets to see that the entries are full and correct, signing their names to them in evidence of their approval.

THE DETECTIVES.

       The Detective Bureau is under the direction of the Board of Police Commissioners, the Chief being appointed as the head of the Bureau.

       He shall have command and full control of the Bureau and shall be responsible for its efficiency.

       Detective officers shall, as often as it is practicable, visit all public gatherings and places where numbers of persons collect. They shall observe all gaming-houses and houses of ill-fame and all persons who may be suspected of crime or evil design, whether residents or strangers, and keep a list of all per- sons convicted of crime who are likely to be a danger to the community.

       They shall visit the more crowded thoroughfares of the city for the purpose of observing persons and transactions which may be of service to them in the discharge of their duties.

       They shall at all times hold themselves in readiness to answer all calls in the line of duty. They shall at all times keep the Chief informed of all matters coming to their knowledge relating to the interests of the Bureau. A record of arrests by the Detectives of all persons imprisoned at head- quarters shall be kept in the office, in which shall be entered the name of the person arrested, the time and cause of his arrest and the description of each prisoner.

       The book of records to be at all times open to the inspection of the Board of Police Commissioners. They shall have such prisoners who are of note photographed and keep a record by number and description, the same to be

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displayed to the members of the force so that each officer and patrolman shall be acquainted with the picture and its criminal record.

     Photographs and descriptions of criminals sent to the Bureau shall at all times be displayed to the Bureau and attention called to the facts in the case. Should there be occasion to send one of their number out of the city, county or State in pursuit of any fugitive from justice this may be allowed by permission from the Chief.

     The Detectives, in the interest of the Bureau, shall have free access to interview any prisoner or person in the station-houses, or confined therein, and shall have access to all criminal records connected with the Bureau.

     All money or property lost, stolen or supposed to be stolen, taken from persons arrested, or which by any means shall come into the possession of the Detectives for which there is at the time no proper claimant or rightful owner, shall be immediately delivered and the statement of the facts relating thereto

to the Chief and a record kept thereof, which record shall be open at all times to the Board of Police Commissioners.

     It shall be the duty of the Detectives, through the Chief, in the interest of the Bureau, to make charges against any officer to the Board of Police Com- missioners who causes obstacles to be put in the way of the Detectives in the line of their duty, or giving information damaging to the success of the Bureau. Such charges against officers, if sustained, to be followed by instant dismissal from the force.

     The Detectives, under no consideration, shall receive compensation from citizens for duty performed without such compensation is first submitted to the Board of Police Commissioners and they giving them privilege of acceptance.

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THE SERGEANTS.

     The Sergeants are required to inspect the men before roll-call (during the absence of the Roundsmen), correcting any neglect or deficiency in their dress, and if any member appears, from any cause, to be unfit for duty the officer must without delay report the same, with the reason therefore, to the Captain. In the absence of the Captains, the Sergeants perform their duties and are subject to the same rules and regulations. Their regular duties require them to be always at the station during their hours of service and to have the general charge of the patrolmen on their beats, and to be responsible for the general good order and discipline of the force.

THE ROUNDSMEN.

     It shall be the duty of the Roundsmen to report at the station they are ordered to by the Chief or officer in command, and after inspection and roll- call, they shall receive instructions for making their rounds.

     When on their rounds they will carry a small book, in which they will note the time and place of seeing a patrol officer. It will be their duty to visit the different posts, and especially those of patrolmen who are supposed to neglect their duties, as often and at such times as they may be ordered to by their superior officers.

     Reports must be given to the officer in charge of the station-house when relieved. The officer in charge of the station will be held responsible if he allows the Roundsman to remain in the station over his time for making his rounds.

     Their time for reporting on and off duty shall be the same as that of the Patrolmen.

     And it shall be their duty, when making their rounds, to send in their number from the boxes which they may pass, but in all cases they must report from at least three different boxes.

     They shall not locate any officer by blowing their whistle or using their baton or billy, and in no case will they use either, except in cases of absolute necessity. They will, in making their rounds, reach the posts from a direction in which they are the least expected, and change those directions at such times as they may deem it necessary.

     Upon the Roundsman meeting a Patrolman he will note the time and place; and if he has any instructions for the officer he will immediately inform him of the same, and if the officer has any official information he shall then notify the Roundsman, who then will proceed on his rounds. They shall not remain talking longer than is absolutely necessary to impart the instructions or information required.

     They shall carefully note and impartially report to the Captain or other officer in charge of their district the case of every Patrolman, by name and number, absent from his post, or may be found violating any of the rules of the Department, or other neglect of discipline or duty; and failure to report the same shall he sufficient cause for suspension or dismissal from the Department.

     The Patrolmen will be furnished with a small slip-book, in which they will note the time and place of seeing the Roundsman, and when relieved from duty they will deposit such slip report in a box, which will be kept on the Sergeant's desk.

     The officer in charge will compare these reports and report all cases of

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THE PATROLMEN.

     The prevention of crime is the most important object which the Patrolman shall have in view, to accomplish which he must examine and make him- self perfectly familiar with every part of his post. He must make himself thoroughly acquainted with every place where he has reason to believe law is being violated and must, by his vigilance, prevent assaults, breaches of the peace and all other crimes about to be committed. He must be present at the station-house promptly at roll-call and hold himself in readiness at all times to perform such duties as may be assigned him and to obey the orders of his superior officers. At the time appointed for his going on duty the Patrolman must, as quickly as possible, repair to his post by the route laid down by the officer in charge and patrol every part thereof as often as practicable, and shall confine his patrol within the limits of his post, except in case of absence on duty, cause of which he shall enter in his note-book, until the time for the expiration of his tour of duty and he is regularly relieved.

     They must make all arrests in as easy and quiet a manner as possible, only using sufficient force to secure the prisoner, who shall be properly cared for until removed from his custody according to law, and any unnecessary deprivation or abuse will receive reproof and punishment.

     The Patrolman must not use his baton, or billy, or undue violence, except in the most urgent cases of self-defense.

     On discovering a fire the Patrolman shall first extinguish it, if he can; if he cannot, he shall at once repair to the nearest signal-box and give the alarm, remaining awhile near the box to direct the firemen when they arrive. He shall note the time when and the box from which he gives or hears an alarm and any suspicious circumstances connected with the fire which may come under his observation. He shall, in a respectful manner, give his name and number to all persons who may inquire for them, direct strangers and others,

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when requested, the nearest and safest way to their destination and furnish such information and render such aid as is consistent with his duty.

     He shall arrest all beggars who go from door to door, or beg in the high- way, and cause all children who have strayed or who have been abandoned to be taken to their homes, if known and within the bounds of his beat, and if not, to either station-house.

     In case of accident to, or the sudden illness of any person in the street, he shall render such immediate aid as may be in his power. If a person be dying, or seriously injured, he shall send immediately for a physician and, if practicable, shall have the person conveyed to his home, or some other suitable or convenient place, and render such other aid as he may be able. If the person be dying in consequence of injuries by violence the Patrolman will make every exertion to arrest the offenders and will immediately send for a Police Justice, or other competent authority, to take the dying declaration of the person, or to give such direction in the premises as he may think proper. Whenever a Patrolman has knowledge that a person has come to a sudden, violent and untimely death on or near his beat, or that a person has been found dead, the manner of whose death is not known, he must at once cause speedy information of such fact be sent to police headquarters. When the death in question is evidently caused by the criminal act, omission or carelessness of another, the county coroner, or his deputy, as well as the county physician, should be notified as speedily as possible, and whenever any person shall be found dead, whose death is supposed to have been due to foul means, any member of the Department, whose attention is called thereto, must see to it that no person approach the place where the crime is supposed to have been committed, that the dead body be not moved and that its surroundings be not disturbed until the arrival of the county physician, or coroner; always provided, that no immediate steps can be taken to secure the arrest of the criminal and that public decency be not unnecessarily offended.

     In cases of suspected murder, or manslaughter, such officer or Patrolman must take care that neither he nor anyone else obliterate or confuse foot-marks near the body found, or near the spot where the crime is supposed to have been committed; if possible, such footmarks should be carefully covered over until the arrival of the county physician, or coroner, and a careful search should be made for any weapon or traces of identity possibly left in the vicinity of the body by the criminal and, whenever practicable, to assist him in the execution of his official duties and to execute his lawful orders.

     He shall, as far as he can, without intrusion upon the privacy of individuals, make himself acquainted with all places on his beat, their character and the purposes for which they are used and, if possible, acquire such knowledge of the inhabitants as will enable him to recognize them.

     He must strictly watch the conduct of all persons of known bad character in such a manner that it will be evident to them that they are watched, thus, in many cases, preventing the commission of crime; he must, if possible, ascertain the names and business of all suspicious persons whom he frequently meets in the streets late at night, fixing in his mind such impressions as will enable him to recognize them, noting in his book the time and place of their appearance on his beat and the places, if any, visited by them.

     He shall carefully watch all disorderly houses, gaming-houses, houses of ill-fame, dance-houses and all suspicious places of resort, reporting everything of importance that he may discover in relation thereto.

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     He shall note all places of amusement, licensed persons and places, junk- shops, places of purchase and sale of second-hand articles, pawnbrokers and all similar places and see that there is no violation of the laws or of the ordinances of the city.

     He shall, during the night season, carefully examine all the doors, gates and low windows on his beat, where extra care is needed and, if not properly secured, notify the inmates, if any, if there are none, then make the same fast and see that the owner is notified the next morning. He shall observe all obstructions on the streets or sidewalks and all defects therein from which accidents may occur and remove them when practicable. He shall call the attention of the owners or occupants to the state of their sidewalk, when by snow, ice or other cause they are rendered dangerous, or when they are obstructed by fuel, boxes, barrels, goods, signs and other incumbrances. He shall take note of all ashes, garbage, dead animals and other nuisances thrown into the streets, and if the same be not removed or abated after notice being given he shall report the case to the Chief.

     A blank book is given to each Patrolman, in which he records all items which concern him while on duty, which book, when not in use, is left at the station with the officer in charge.

     Any member of the police force may be punished by the Board of Police Commissioners in their discretion, either by reprimand, forfeiture and with- holding pay, not exceeding thirty days, for any one offense, or by dismissal from the force, on conviction of either of the following offenses:

     Of intoxication.
     Of any act of insubordination or disrespect towards a superior officer.
     Of any acts of oppression or tyranny.
     Of neglect of duty.
     Of violation of the rules.
     Of neglect or disobedience of orders.
     Of any legal offense.
     Of absence without leave.
     Of immoral conduct.
     Of conduct unbecoming an officer.
     Of conduct injurious to the public peace or welfare.
     Of incapacity--mental, physical or educational.
     Of any breach of discipline.
     Of neglecting or refusing to pay his just debts.

     The right of every member of the police force to entertain political opinions and to express the same freely, when such expression shall not concern the immediate discharge of his official duties and the right of elective franchise, will be deemed sacred and inviolate. But no member of the police force will be permitted to be a delegate or representative to or member of any political or partisan convention, whose purpose is the nomination of any candidate or candidates to any political office.

     Any member of the police force who, being under charges, shall, either before trial or judgment, cause any person to interfere, personally or by letter, in his behalf, with any of the Police Commissioners, shall be reported to the Board of Police Commissioners and thereupon be tried on the charge of conduct unbecoming an officer.

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DUTIES OF THE PATROLMEN WHEN ON SPECIAL DUTY.

     Patrolmen may be detailed by the Chief, under the direction of the Commissioners, to do special service for such time as the needs of the service may require.

     They shall, as often as is practicable, visit the railway stations, all public gatherings and places where large numbers of persons collect.

     They shall observe all gaming-houses and houses of ill-fame, and all persons who may reasonably be suspected of crime or evil design, whether residents or strangers, and keep a list of all persons convicted of crime, who are likely to be dangerous to the community.

     They shall visit the more crowded thoroughfares of the city for the purpose of observing persons and transactions which may be of service to them in the discharge of their duties.

     They shall not only use their best efforts to detect the criminal, but also to prevent the commission of crime.

     They shall at all times hold themselves in readiness to answer all calls, to perform any duties connected with the Department made by the Chief, or an officer in charge of the station-house.

     All property taken by them from any prisoner shall be carefully marked and left with the Chief or officer in charge.

     They shall at all times keep the Chief informed of all matters coming to their knowledge, relating to the interests of the Department.

     They shall each keep a private record of their doings in a book kept at headquarters for that purpose, always open to the inspection of the Chief.

     They shall also make, in writing, a report to the Chief, every evening at

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7 o'clock, showing where they have been and in what they have been engaged during the previous twenty-four hours. If absent from the city, for any cause, they shall submit a similar report to the Chief immediately on their return, in which they shall state the reason of such absence, and under no circumstances can they leave the town without the consent of the Chief, to whom they must state the nature of the business which calls them away.

     Should there be occasion to send one of their number out of the city, county or State, in pursuit of any fugitive from justice, this may be allowed by permission of the Chief. But all his expenses and a reasonable compensation may be required by the Department of the parties interested in the apprehension of the criminal as a condition of such permission.

THE PATROL WAGON DRIVERS.

     Drivers of patrol wagons will be subject to all rules for the government of the force, not inconsistent with their duties.

     Drivers will be held responsible for the cleanliness and care of the horses, wagons, harness and stables.

     As each driver comes on duty he will inspect his horses, harness and wagons, to see if all are in good condition and fit for duty, and should he find his horses, wagons or any part of the harness broken or unfit for service, he shall immediately report the same to his Captain, or the Sergeant at the desk. Failure to do so will be considered "Neglect of Duty" on his part.

     In the absence of some superior officer, the reserve officer will have charge as to the route to be taken going to or coming from a call and also as to the number of persons to be permitted to ride in the wagon.

     Patrol Drivers shall at all times give the right of way to fire engines and other vehicles of the Fire Department going to a fire.

     No Driver shall drive his horse or horses faster than a trot and shall slow up in turning a corner, unless specially ordered, or in cases of emergencies.

     Patrol Drivers shall not ring the gong on their wagons only when necessary to warn pedestrians or vehicles that may be in their way when responding to an alarm.

     Patrol Drivers' time of duty shall be twelve (12) hours on and twelve (12) hours off.

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THE CHANCEMEN.

     All appointments of Patrolmen or Chancemen shall be for six (6) months, on trial, at $50.00 per month, and if at the end of that time they prove themselves duly qualified for the position, to the satisfaction of the Board, they shall then be elected as a Patrolman or Chanceman, at the regular pay from that time.

UNIFORMS.

     Uniforms and parts of uniforms must be made in strict accord with regulations.

     A general inspection of all uniforms will be made by the Board of Commissioners, or the Chief of Police, during the months of June and October of each year, and all uniforms and parts of uniforms condemned at such inspections as unfit for further use must be replaced by new.

     The full dress of the members of the police force, excepting the Surgeon, shall be of blue Burlington police cloth, indigo dyed and all wool.

     For the Chief.-- The dress shall be a double-breasted frock coat; the waist to extend to the top of the hip, and the skirt to within one inch of the bend of the knee, two rows of police buttons on the breast, eight in each row, placed at equal distances; stand-up collar, to rise no higher than to permit the chin to turn freely over it, to hook in front at the buttons; cuffs three and one-half inches deep, and to have three small buttons on the under seam; two buttons on the hips, one button on the bottom of each skirt pocket welt, and two buttons intermediate, so as there will be six buttons on the back; collar and cuffs to be of the same material as the coat. The pantaloons plain. Black neckcloth and white collar. Gold wreath on cap shall enclose the word "Chief."

     For Captains.--The same as for Chief, except that there will be seven buttons in each row on the breast of the coat. The wreath on the cap shall enclose the word "Captain."

     For Sergeants.--The same as for Captains. The wreath on the cap shall enclose the word "Sergeant."

     For Patrolman.--The dress shall be a single-breasted frock coat; collar the same as for the Sergeants; cuffs to have three small buttons on the under seam , the waist to extend to the top of the hip and the skirt to within one inch of the bend of the knee , nine buttons on the breast, two buttons on the hips, two buttons on the bottom of each pocket. Pantaloons shall be of the same material as the dress coat. White standing shirt collar and black neckcloth. The hat wreath surrounding the appropriate number to be of white metal.

     The summer uniform shall consist of blue flannel sack coat and blue flannel pantaloons. The coat for Patrolmen to be a single-breasted sack, with short turn-over collar, to button close up to the chin and reach to a point four inches above the bend of the knee, with four buttons on the front; no pockets to show on the outside, and the pantaloons to be made same as winter pantaloons.

     Officers are permitted to wear the summer uniform while on duty at the station-houses.

     When on duty the baton shall be carried in the socket when the belt is worn, and in a pocket, to be made for that purpose in the right side of the pants and in the rear of seam, when the belt is not worn, and shall only be

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drawn therefrom when specially ordered or when required for the self-protection of the officer or for use in urgent cases.

     Members of the uniformed force having served five years in the Department, will wear on both sleeves of the overcoat, dress coat and blouse a chevron, to be designated the "service chevron," to consist of one bar, to be placed on the front of the sleeve, adjoining to and above the cuff seam, and parallel thereto, extending in length from seam to seam.

     For the Chief, Captains and Sergeants, the bar to be of gold braid, three- eighths of an inch in width, and for all other members of the uniformed force to be of blue cloth, with black binding, one-half inch in width. In like manner an additional bar will be worn for every five years of service.

     The overcoat shall be of blue Burlington beaver, indigo-dyed, double- breasted, rolling collar, waist to extend to one inch below the hip, skirt to three inches below the bend of the knee; swell edge, stitched one-fourth of an inch from the edge. Chief, Captains and Sergeants will have eight police buttons on each breast, six on back and skirt and three on the cuffs. Patrolmen will have nine police buttons on each breast. four on the back and skirt and two on the cuffs. All buttons on the breast of double-breasted coats shall be placed in two rows, at a distance between rows of seven inches at top and three and a half inches at bottom, measured from centres, and in such manner as to form, when the coat is buttoned, direct lines from top to bottom.

     Shields are to be worn without chains, and carefully used, kept clean and bright. and when required, replated at the cost of the member.

     If any member shall break, or bend, or otherwise change the form of his Shield, or the fastening thereof, he shall pay the cost of repair or furnish a new one, as may be required.

     It will be deemed "Neglect of Duty" on the part of any member of the force to carelessly lose his shield or other insignia of office, to neglect to fasten the same securely to his clothing, or neglect to report such loss immediately thereafter to the officer in command at the station-house.

     It shall be the duty of the Chief to immediately make charges against the officer for losing his shield, and the fact of the loss shall be presumptive evidence of carelessness.

     Any Patrolman convicted of such charge, wherein neglect or wrongdoing is established, shall be subject to a fine.

     Captains, Sergeants and Patrolmen shall wear the prescribed uniform at all times when their respective platoons are on patrol or reserve duty, and when the off platoon may be called into service on extra occasions, or in attending courts, drills or parades, and when performing any business connected with the Department.

     The Chief is authorized to order or grant permission to members of the force to wear civilians' dress on occasions when required to perform special duty, which order or permit shall be entered on the Blotter.

     At no time are members of the force exempt from the performance of police duties, or from strict observance of the rules and regulations of the Department. When off duty they shall wear their shields upon the left breast, in order that the same may be displayed when required.

     The coat shall be buttoned at all times when on duty.

     Captains. Sergeants and Patrolmen, when on duty (except when otherwise permitted by the Chief), shall wear the shield on the outside of the outer- most garment, over the left breast: and on all occasions, when on duty, conspicuously display their shields, so that the entire surface of the same may be

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easily and distinctly seen. Members of the force, when on detective or other duty, with orders to dress in Citizens' dress, shall wear their shields so that they can be readily exhibited.

     Cloth for police uniforms (overcoats, frock-coats, blouses and pantaloons) must be purchased of the Board of Police Commissioners. The cloth furnished is all wool, indigo-dyed, made for the purpose, and of the best and most durable character; it will not fade or change color and is furnished at cost. This system has been found necessary to secure durable materials and uniform fast colors, and to protect policemen from impositions in the purchase of cloth. No member of the force shall wear either of the above-mentioned garments, unless the same have first been inspected by the Police Commissioners.

     All members of the Department desiring police clothing must personally procure their cloth at the office of Police Commissioners, and have the quantity

required for each suit (or garment or garments, in case less than a full suit is required) cut off separately. The sale to tailors or others will not be allowed.

     Manuals and shields are supplied to each member of the force, but remain the property of the Department. Each member leaving the force is required to deliver his manual and shield to the Chief, who shall return the same to the Clerk of the Police Commissioners. The pay of any person who has ceased to be a member of the Force shall be withheld until the certificate of the Chief that his manual and shield have been duly returned is produced; and in case they are lost or destroyed, the Clerk is authorized to deduct the original cost, of the articles from the pay of the party. Manuals shall he carefully used, and shall not be soiled or defaced by writing or otherwise.

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POLICE TELEGRAPH STATIONS.

FIRST PRECINCT

  1. Clinton and Olden Avenues.
  2. Mulberry Street and Klagg Avenue.
  3. Ewing and Cross Streets.
  4. Warren Street and Bound Brook Depot.
  5. Jeffereson and Southard Streets.
  6. Ohio Avenue and Mulberry Street.
  7. Clinton Avenue and Oak Street.
  8. Princeton Avenue, near Almhouse.
  9. Calhoun Street and Bellevue Avenue.
  10. Broad and Factory Streets.
  11. Feeder and Montgomery Streets.
  12. Brunswick Avenue and Bond Street.
  13. Willow and Tucker Streets.
  14. South Stockton, near Front Street.
  15. West State and Calhoun Streets.
  16. Pennington Avenue and Reservoir Street.
  17. Academy and North Broad Streets.
  18. West State and Prospect Streets.
  19. Prospect Street and Rutherford Avenue.

SECOND PRECINCT

  1. Broad and Liberty Streets.
  2. Kent Street and Chestnut Avenue.
  3. Greenwood and Clinton Avenues.
  4. Clinton Avenue and Dye Street.
  5. Hancock and Home Avenues.
  6. Mill and Warren Streets.
  7. Cooper and Market Streets.
  8. Liberty and Woodland Streets.
  9. Second and Temple Streets.
  10. Centre and Cliff Streets.
  11. East State and Monmouth Streets.
  12. Broad Street and Hamilton Avenue.
  13. Warren and Ferry Streets.
  14. Centre and Federal Streets.
  15. South Broad and Third Streets.
  16. Cook and Walnut Streets.
  17. East State Street and Olden Avenue.
  18. Hamilton Avenue and Chambers Street.

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Police Station and Equipment.

     In the First and Second Precinct Police Stations the Trenton Police Department have fine and commodious homes provided by the city. They are splendidly furnished and equipped and, in point of convenience, are the equal of any in the country, everything considered.

     The officers and men take a ride in keeping them up in first-class condition a nd repair, and enjoy their comfort to the fullest extent.

     The First Precinct Station, of which we present an engraving, as well as of the Second, has not the exterior appearance of convenience which the interior presents. It was formerly used as a market-house , in fact, was built and designed for that purpose.

     For that use it proved an unprofitable investment for its owners, and it was still being used, however, as a place of public gathering.

     Prior to its occupation the offices of the Police Department, as well as the city prison, were located in the City Hall.

     The sanitary conditions of this building, as well as its general arrangements, were poorly fitted for this purpose, and the Department labored under many inconveniences; in fact, the health of those who were compelled to remain there suffered and a change was found to be an imperative necessity.

     After much discussion, the old Freeze Market-House was rented and fitted up in the manner which it new stands, and the Department moved in the twenty-sixth day of September, 1888.

     A purchasing clause was included in its lease, and shortly afterwards it was bought by the city for $18,000 from Samuel K. Wilson.

     It might be interesting to state that the first arrest made, on the above- named date, was of John Mahan by Roundsman Randolph. The charge was disorderly conduct. Mahan afterwards became a. criminal of some note.

     We present a ground plan of the First Precinct Station. Experts pronounce it a model of convenience.

     The main building is 86 1/2 X 46 1/2 feet and the rear extension is 81 x40 1/2 feet. The basement is devoted to the heating apparatus and the first floor to the several apartments used in the daily business of the Department, including

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the public lobby, or assembly-rooms, containing the Captain's and Sergeants' desks. The Captain's private office opens just in the rear of his desk, which offers seclusion when privacy is needed.

     Just across the hall is the private office of the Chief of Police and in the rear of this the Police Surgeon has a private apartment appropriately fitted and furnished.

     The police barracks are in the rear of the public lobby, and is fitted with lockers for each man, in which he keeps his private equipment and belongings; here also the men entertain themselves while waiting to go on duty.

     The Police Court room opens up from the public lobby also, and is nicely furnished in oak. Here court is held every day. Two sessions--8 A. M. and 7 P. M. ; Sundays excepted.

     The Detectives also have their office on this floor, and last, but not least, the cell-room is located in the rear, with entrance into the court-room and also the public lobby.

     This department is fitted up with fourteen large steel cells. Ten of these are devoted to the male prisoners, three to the female and one padded cell, or dungeon, for the confinement of insane persons.

     In building this department to the First Precinct Station great care was taken to have it conform to the latest rules of scientific sanitation. The floors are of solid cement, no resting place is left for dirt or vermin. Each cell is provided with running water and automatic flushing traps, and the unpleasant features that are likely to be present in such places as this are reduced to the minimum. Absolute cleanliness is preserved, and in place of the foul smelling hole that was once the recipient of the city's criminal class is to be found a clean, odorless, well-lighted and ventilated apartment for the reception of those who are so unfortunate as to be confined there.

     We might also add that a private room in another part of the building is provided for the use of those who are compelled to seek a night's lodging at the city' s expense. It is provided with a good bed and is often used by worthy poor.

     The second floor of the building is devoted to the police dormitories for the use of those officers who are detailed for station duty, and the large hall, which was formerly used as an assembly-room, is fitted up as a police gymnasium. Over $1,000 has been expended in fitting out this room with Spaulding apparatus, and it is largely used by those members of the force who take a pride in keeping up their physical condition.

     It is a rule of the Department that a certain amount of exercise shall be taken by every member of the force, but the rule is not enforced, and it is left to the will of the men.

     The private apartments of the Board of Police Commissioners are in the rear of the gymnasium and are sumptuously fitted up for their use.

THE SECOND PRECINCT POLICE STATION,

     Located on South Broad street, is a newer and more modern building in its generral arrangement, as well as appearance, than the First Precinct Station. It is of rather an imposing appearance and was built and occupied by the borough officers of Chambersburg.

     When that district was taken into the city of Trenton this building was

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immediately occupied and made the Second Precinct. The officers who had formerly been in the employ of the Borough of Chambersburg were transferred to the pay-roll of the city of Trenton to a man.

     Sergeant Dettmar, who is now attached to the Second Precinct, was the Chief of the Chambersburg police and suffered a change in title, but not in location.

     This building was also thoroughly remodeled when it fell into the hands of the city of Trenton, and is equally as well equipped as the First Precinct, its cell-rooms and other arrangements being exactly the same. Police Court is also held here daily and a patrol wagon system will soon be attached, all calls now being sent to the First Precinct.

     A hand-ball court is one of the features of this station, located in the large hall which was formerly used for drill purposes. The sanitary arrangements are all that could be desired here, and it is finely lighted, heated and ventilated.

     The men are very proud of their quarters, and well they may be, as there Are none better.

     In each station two Columbia bicycles are kept for special use, two men From the reserve squad in the evenings being detailed for this service whenever it becomes necessary.

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THE POLICE BURIAL ASSESSMENT.

     Monday, January 6th, 1896, an agreement was entered into by the officers and men of the Trenton Police Department to provide for the burial expenses of any member of the Department, who might die while connected with the same.

     The movement did not take the form of an association, but was more in the way of an understanding between the men, and a paper was signed, which set forth the object, which was to raise by assessment a sum of money not to exceed $120, $100 of which was intended to pay the funeral expenses and the balance to be invested for a suitable floral tribute.

     SKETCH OF WOODLAWN.-This fine old mansion, known as Woodlawn, the home of Edward H. Stokes, dates back to 1720, and is rich in historic association. It was built by the First settler of Trenton, Colonel Trent, and has been occupied by Governor Lewis Morris, Governor Price, John Cox and James M. Redmond. Ex- Mayor Cooper, of New York City, married his wife, Miss Redmond, from this house, as did also Edwin Stevens, the great inventor, Horace Binney, of Philadelphia, and the father of Senator Chesnut of South Carolina. In olden times this old place was the scene of many at festive gathering, and here from far and near gathered distinguished statesmen and diplomats. Woodlawn is one of the few ancient landmarks left in the city, and around it cluster tender memories of the long ago, of the brave days of old.

     Every man in the Department signed the paper and subsequent additions have done likewise, and on three different occasions the assessment has been levied and cheerfully paid.

     The following is the text of the agreement:
                                                                        Trenton, N. J., Jan. 6th, 1896.

Police Department, City of Trenton:
     In case of the death of any member of the above-named Department on and after the above date, whose name is signed hereto, we bind ourselves

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together and pledge to the widow, or heirs, the sum of $100, And further- more, we do agree to pay a sum not to exceed $20, the same to be expended in the purchase of a floral tribute to said deceased member.

     The whole amount to be assessed shall not exceed $120 and shall be collected in an equal assessment on each and every member whose name is signed hereto.

     In case any member of the Department whose name is signed hereto shall refuse or neglect to pay the amount so assessed in five days after death of any member his name shall be stricken from the said agreement and he shall be further debarred from any benefits for any moneys heretofore paid.

     We furthermore agree, and it is our order, that the Captains in their

respective precincts, or some member of the Department designated by them, shall collect the said moneys as provided for in this agreement and disburse the same for the purposes heretofore stated, taking a receipt for the same.

     We furthermore agree that any member severing his connection with this Department, either by expulsion or resignation, shall not receive any benefits thereof, notwithstanding any moneys paid heretofore by him.

     Signed by Charles H. McChesney, Chief; John J. Cleary, Captain; William Hartman, Captain, and by the rest of the officers and men.

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COST OF CONDUCTING THE TRENTON POLICE DEPARTMENT

     The following figures show that the cost of running the Department is not excessive. They are taken from the last fiscal report of the Board of Commissioners and are authentic:

EXPENDITURES.
Salaries$60,022.72
Station-Houses3,803.46
Police Telegraph1,954.93
Patrol1,410.96
Printing and Stationery422.22
Clothing   1,925.71
Amount of appropriation      $69,540.00

     It has long been contended that the salaries are inadequate. They should at least be on a par with other cities of the same size, but statistics show them to be less.

     Even some of the smaller cities pay their guardians of the peace better.

     The Chief receives $1,200 per year; the Captains, $1,080; the Sergeants, $900; Roundsmen, $840, and the Patrolmen, $780 each

     It may be interesting to add that the salaries paid in New York City are as follows: Doorman, $1,000 to $1,200; Patrolman, $900 to $1,400; Roundsman, $1,500; Sergeant, $2,000; Captain, $2,750; Inspector, $3,500; Deputy Chief, $5,000; Chief, $6,000.

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THE POLICE SURGEON

Is a man of no small importance in the Department.

     His duties are onerous and take a considerable part of his time, as he is liable to be called at any hour of the day or night.

     It is his duty to attend professionally citizens brought to the station-house and attend those suffering from sudden illness in the public streets and give directions for the disposal of such cases. In cases where members of the police force are absent from duty by reason of sickness or injury received while on duty the surgeon is required to examine into their condition and certify as to the necessity of their absence from duty from such cause to the Board of Police Commissioners. He visits the police headquarters at

least once a day and also examines all applicants for positions, reporting on their physical fitness

     It is his duty also to visit any officer injured while on duty.

     The present incumbent is Dr. William B. Van Duyn, who has held this position for eleven years and has given eminent satisfaction.

     Last year he made 211 visits to the sick and injured members of the force and answered eighty-nine calls to the First and Second Precinct Stations to attend prisoners and others.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND CIRCULARS OF INFORMATION.

     The Trenton Police Department, like all others in cities of the same size, receives a vast amount of information concerning the doings and movements

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of criminals, which comes in the shape of telegrams, postal-cards and letters. Immediately upon their receipt they are read to the Patrolmen from the desk and afterward posted on the bulletin-board in the assembly-room. This is for the purpose of giving the Patrolmen an opportunity to carefully scrutinize all photographs and other matters, thus familiarizing themselves with the features of the persons wanted and enabling them to effect a capture should they come within their observation.

     After remaining thus exposed for three or four months they are carefully removed and arranged in the order in which they are received in scrap-books, which are kept for that exclusive purpose. In this way they are able to refer back to any particular date or case desired.

     The value of this system has demonstrated itself repeatedly, as instances frequently occur in long-pending cases, where facts fade from the memory, which can be quickly revived by consulting the records, and criminals brought to justice after a lapse of months.

PATROL WAGON SERVICE.

     An almost indispensable adjunct to a police signal system is that of an adequate patrol wagon service, by means of which prisoners may be brought from distant portions of the precinct without compelling the officer to leave his post, the removal of drunken or sick persons without causing public confusion, the prompt re-enforcement of an officer or post bringing to his aid a larger body of police, the carrying of prisoners from the station-house to court and return, and in other ways adding vastly to the efficiency of the police service. On the fourteenth day of December, 1887, the first patrol wagon was put in service and was kept first at Braach's livery stable, on Broad street, and later on at Holland's, on East State street.

     In lieu of regular drivers, present Roundsman James Mullen and Officer John Maguire, who were both Patrolmen at that time, were detailed for this service. They had what was called a " short post" at State and Broad streets and a signal arranged by which they could be called when their services were required to take out the wagon.

     On April 1st, 1892, Allan Rogers and Edward Coughlin were appointed regular drivers, the latter resigning on the 27th of the same month to become a Chanceman and eventually a Patrolman. He was succeeded by Wesley Wooley, who was appointed on May 5th, 1892.

     Rogers and Wooley continue to fill the positions, which they have always done in a highly creditable manner. The new stables, which were built in 1895, are equipped with five horses, a patrol and ambulance wagon and a covered van, used for taking prisoners to and from court, to the jail and railroad stations.

     The following statement is taken from the annual report of the Board of Police Commissioners for the year 1898, and shows the character and amount of work this Department is called upon to perform:

AMBULANCE SERVICE
St. Francis Hospital126
Mercer Hospital42
City Hospital7
New Jersey State Hospital1
Taken to their homes32
Taken to the Morgue1
Not in service22
Taken to City Alms House4
Taken to Odd Fellows' Home1
Taken to Clinton St. Station1
       Total237

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PATROL SERVICE.
Wagon calls from boxes126
Telephone calls22
Male prisoners carried1003
Female prisoners carried63

THE DOCKET.

     One of the most important books connected with the Department is the Docket, in which is recorded the names of all persons brought to the station under arrest from any cause. A glance at the foregoing illustration of two of its pages will show its comprehensiveness, as well as the neatness and carefulness with which it is kept. In the first place the year, the month and day of the week and the time of day to a second are shown. Then follows the full name of the prisoner, his alias, if any, by whom arrested, the name and address of the complainant, the charge, the prisoner's age, color, sex, conjugal condition, place of birth, occupation, residence and the disposition of his case.

     In the earlier history of the Department the manner of keeping this import- ant record was extremely slip-shod and unsatisfactory, from the fact that all arrests made during the twenty-four hours were entered by whoever happened to be in the station at the time, the consequence being that a page of the docket bore a striking resemblance to a series of Egyptian hieroglyphics. Another thing which added greatly to its complication was the fact that when a prisoner was brought in, his first impulse, if at all in the possession of his senses, was to screen himself by giving an assumed name. On. his appearance before the Police Court the next morning he had probably forgotten the name he had given the night before. Consequently, he would not answer when that name was called and the only way to identify him with it would be to go through with all the other cases, which finally left but one prisoner, who was then compelled to give another name, if he could not recall the one previously given. This would cause an erasure and the substitution of the proper name on the docket.

     Another exceedingly vexatious hindrance to keeping the records correct arose from the manner of disposing of cases in the Police Court. The Judge of this court owes his position to political preference and is subject to certain influences, which were often brought to bear when a prisoner with a "pull" with the party that happened to be in power was arraigned. Frequently this influence would not demonstrate itself very strongly at the time of the sentence, but before it could be finally carried out it would be learned that the case had been reconsidered, which would cause additional erasures to be made from the Docket.

     There was practically no change in this bunglesome system until June 1st, 1891, when Captain Cleary conceived the idea of the present arrangement and placed the book entirely in charge of Sergeant Michael McGowan. The wisdom of this selection is shown by the marked ability with which the Docket has been kept from that time, it being a model of neatness and accuracy in every particular. A great help in the prosecution of this work is to be found in a slate, which is an exact counterpart of the Docket, from which the records are transcribed after the final disposition of the cases.

POLICE TELEGRAPH

     Equally progressive strides in the march of improvement have brought the Police and Fire Alarm Telegraph to the high plane of proficiency occupied by the other Departments of the police service.

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     The spirit of enterprise which has pervaded this branch has brought it up in a few years from a condition of primitive crudeness to the present system, which stands unrivalled in the United States.

     Mr. Charles C. Drake, the Superintendent of this Department, has kindly furnished a statement in regard to its equipment and workings that will be found to be full of interest, as showing the detail of construction and manner of operation.

     In 1885, when Mr. Drake received the appointment of Superintendent, the system consisted of twenty-one street boxes, nineteen of them being owned by the city and two by private corporations.

     To-day there are thirty-eight patrol-boxes connected by over fifty miles of No. 10 hard-drawn copper wire, weather-proof insulation. They occupy 1,500 poles, 300 of which are owned by the Police Department and insulated with high- tension insulators. These insulators being made of white porcelain, are easily picked out of the numerous telephone and electric light wires of the city. In answer to the demands of economy and civic pride, the days of the unsightly overhead wires are fast drawing to a close, the modern method being to place them in conduits underneath the ground. In following this out the European system of running the wires through singly has been adopted, instead of enclosing them all in a single cable, as has been the custom in this country heretofore. Thus far, about one and a half miles have been completed.

     The boxes are of the latest improved Pierce & Jones patent, each containing a long-distance telephone manufactured by De Vau & Co., New York, and owned by the city. The telephone for the box equipment is different from any- thing in existence, being mounted on a slate base and soldered connections making them superior to the Bell, or any other kind of telephone in use in this country.

     A great source of trouble in police boxes has been their liability to shrinkage from constant exposure to heat and cold. The use of the slate base precludes this annoyance, as well as all danger arising from crossed wires, owing to the fact of the slate being non-inflammable.

     The telephones are connected in series on the main lines, thereby saving a third wire. Each box contains eight signals, besides the Patrolman's special call. The wires are divided up into four circuits, equipped with the Gamewell automatic six-circuit switchbard [sic] and 100 cells chloride accumulators.

     The two precincts are fully equipped with Central Station plants consisting of four Pen Registers of the latest pattern. The present plant, which was inaugurated in 1887, could not be duplicated for less than $16,000. The cost of its maintenance for the year 1898 was less than $500.

     A recent innovation, which has proved a great convenience in a variety of ways, is the introduction of portable electric light plants in the ambulance and patrol wagons. For instance, in case of an intended raid the lights of the patrol wagon can be turned on or off instantly and in the ambulance the surgeon has a powerful light, which can be moved to any part of the wagon, or even out upon the ground to facilitate the handling of a sick or injured person.

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THE DETECTIVE DEPARTMENT.

     Under the system in vogue in the Trenton Police Department the position of a detective might be compared to that of a Patrolman with a roving coin- mission.

     They differ in the respect though, that while both are always on the alert for the detection of overt acts in violation of law and order, the scope of the detective's duty extends to the ferreting out of criminals after the commission of crime, and in the pursuance of their object are not confined to any limits of territory. It frequently happening that they are called to other cities to identify and bring back escaped lawbreakers.

     The principal requirements for success in this class of work are coolness,

DETECTIVE HARRY LEAHY
(Deceased).

     A review of the Trenton Police Department would hardly be complete Without a mention of Harry Leahy, whose portrait appears here, and who died August 7th, 1894. He was one of the first detectives appointed on the force, and served the city in a manner that was marked to the very highest degree by efficiency and success, his reputation being second to none in the country for genius and adaptability to his chosen profession.
     Probably no man was ever more sincerely mourned by his fellow-workers in any calling than was Harry Leahy when death removed him from the ranks.

good judgment, a wide range of knowledge in the domain of human nature and and an extended acquaintance with individuals and types of the criminal class, together with a familiarity with their habits, style of work and various peculiarities. It is a well-known fact to all students of criminology that in the perpetration of their offenses it is seldom that criminals go out of their respective lines. For instance, a burglar would scorn to pass counterfeit money, a forger would almost rather starve than stoop to a common act of pilfering, the highwayman despises the pickpocket, while the bank thief and the till-tapper rarely ever vary their vocations.

     The trained detective, when set to work upon a case, is guided altogether by its nature in making his investigations, and circumstances which would be

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considered trivial and unimportant to the mind of a layman are to him, oftentimes, clues which lead directly to the solution of a complicated situation. It is the plain-clothes man whom the foreign crook holds in the greatest dread, as the officer in uniform, patiently patroling [sic] the limits of his post, is easily recognized. The ubiquitous detective, however, in the ordinary attire of the civilian, with his unconcerned manner, constantly on the lookout, is quick to note any suspicious movements of a stranger. It is owing to this very important department of the service that much stolen property is recovered and many criminals of all classes are brought to justice.

     In the annexed cut is shown an interior view of the room set aside at head- quarters for the use of the Detectives. It is in this room that the Detectives meet for consultation, where they conduct their correspondence, where suspects are taken for private examination and where the rogues' gallery is kept. The latter is an ingeniously-contrived cabinet, with swinging leaves, in which are placed the photographs of confirmed criminals for future identification.

     This important branch of the service is in charge of Charles Pilger and Lisbon R. Applegate, of whom more extended notice is given elsewhere.


Superior Officers' Police Protective Association
OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY.

     The above organization was formed October 12th, 1897, and the reasons therefore cannot more clearly be set forth than to quote the preamble to the constution [sic], which says:

     "Whereas, It being a well-established fact that a number of individuals laboring for the accomplishment of the same purpose are more likely to obtain the object desired by combining their efforts than by separate action, and by forming themselves into an organized body will better protect their individual rights, promote their welfare and forward their interest, as well as extend their sphere of usefulness, we do, therefore, form ourselves into an association under the name and for the objects hereinafter setforth ** ."

     The Association, which numbers about 200, is composed of representatives of the different county organizations above the rank of Patrolmen, each county being entitled to five representatives.

     Its objects are to unite fraternally for social, benevolent and intellectual improvement and official assistance to all its members, and to establish a benefit fund for their families or dependents.

     The officers are elected annually, those of the ensuing term being: Captain Charles B. Cox, First Precinct, Jersey City, President, Captain J. J. Cleary, First Precinct, Trenton, Vice President , Detective James Kerrigan, First Precinct, Hoboken, Recording Secretary; Sergeant Samuel Archibald, First Precinct, Jersey City, Financial Secretary ; Captain John Long, Elizabeth, Treasurer, Captain William Hartman, of Trenton, and Sergeant George Wohleben, of Jersey City, Trustees.

     The next annual convention of the Association will be held in Trenton in October of the present year.

     Thus far their efforts have been directed toward perfecting their organization, and the progress is in every respect highly encouraging.

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Patrolmen's Benevolent Association.

      The Patrolmen' s Benevolent Association of Trenton was organized December the 10th, 1896, with the commendable objects in view of forming a fraternal union to give all moral and material aid in its power to deserving members in good standing and to provide a burial fund of $100 for the survivors of each member upon his decease. The present officers of the Association are: Peter J. Smith, President; William B. Adams, Vice President; Richard Pilger, Recording Secretary, James T. Culliton, Financial Secretary; Wi1liam N. Hibbs, Treasurer; John Heher, Sergeant-at-Arms, Dennis E. Lane, Martin McDonald and Jacob Walters, Trustees.

     The life of the Association thus far has been marked by the almost perfect harmony that has dwelt within its ranks, numbering among its members nearly every Patrolman in the city, each imbued with the laudable desire to further, by all legitimate means, the interest and prosperity of their organization, which is destined, ultimately, to work great good among its adherents.


Biographies of Patrolmen.

WILLIAM N. HIBBS,

of the First District, was born at Lambertville, N. J., May 26th, 1845, and is a blacksmith by trade. His first connection with the Department covered a period of seven months, when he was retired through political changes in the city's administration. His next identification with the police force occurred May 4th, 1881, eighteen years ago, and he has served with faithfulness and credit during this long term of years, being one of the oldest and most respected men in the city's service to-day. Patrolman Hibbs was Truant Officer for two years and is known as a man of honest intent and rare good judgment. He is a married man, with a grown-up family. He is the treasurer of the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association and recently began his second term in that capacity.

JAMES FEENANE,

of the First district, is one of the stalwart men of the force, standing over six feet in his stockings and broad in proportion. He attributes his fine muscular development to his experience as a farmer in Ireland, where he was born January 12th, 1867. On May 1st, 1886, he came to America and soon found employment as a wire-drawer in the Roebling Mills and followed that occupation until receiving his appointment as a member of the Trenton Police, which occurred March 1st, 1893.

CHARLES H. SMITH.

If there is a man, woman or child in the city of Trenton who does not carry a mental photograph of the genial, jolly features of Officer Charles H. Smith, of the First District, it is because they are either blind, or have never had occasion to pass the corner of Broad and State streets, where for the past nine years he has faithfully and without the suspicion of an accident looked out for the welfare and safety of the thousands of pedestrians who traverse that congested intersection

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[+ enlarge to read names.]

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daily. "Charley" was born in this city on the twenty-eighth day of January, 1858, and has been a life-long resident, receiving his education in the public schools and his first and only employment as a heater in the Roebling Mills before becoming identified with the Police Department, which dates from the first day of April, 1890.

GEORGE MATHEIS,

of the First District, was born in Lawrence township, Mercer county, N. J., April 30th, 1864. He was educated in the public schools of Trenton and followed the occupation of practical brickmaker until his appointment to the force on August 6th, 1891.

WILLIAM DECK,

of the First District, who has been a Patrolman since February 6th, 1889, is a native of Trenton, being born on May 27th, 1857, and receiving his education in the Trenton public schools. He is a cigarmaker by trade and always worked at that business before engaging in his present vocation.

CHARLES IRVING'S

identification with the Trenton Police Department dates from the fifth day of February, 1889, his record being a most enviable one in every respect. Mr. Irving was born in Brooklyn, New York, September 2d, 1850, and came to Trenton with his parents at the age of five years. After leaving the public schools he was employed as a grocer's clerk until he joined the police force on February 5th, 1889, and is attached to the First District.

JOHN HOFFMAN,

of the First District, born in Germany the eleventh day of June, 1851, came to America when quite a young man and found his first employment in the brickyards of Trenton and afterward spent some years in the potteries. He was appointed a Patrolman on the sixth of February, 1889.

AUGUST F. KULP,

of the First District, is one of the youngest members of the Trenton police force, both in age and point of service, being born in this city March 21st, 1870, and receiving his appointment October the 27th, 1898.

CHARLES CONNOR,

of the First District, was born in the city of Trenton on the third day of December, 1868, and received his education in St. John' s Parochial School. After a number of years spent as an iron worker and in the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Mr. Connor was appointed to the force on the twenty-fifth day of July, 1898.

DENNIS LANE,

of the First District, one of the oldest members of the force, was born in Trenton on the twenty-fifth day of December, 1846, and attended the public schools of his native city. After engaging in various occupations he was appointed a policeman in 1873, when there were but fourteen Patrolmen in the city, two to each of the seven wards. At this time, in addition to their duty of maintaining the peace

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[+ enlarge to read names.]

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of the city the policemen were required to light and put out the street lamps, besides keeping them clean. After serving three years he resigned to accept a position at the Philadelphia Centennial, remaining until the close of the Exposition, when he returned to Trenton and engaged in the rubber business for a year and a half and was reappointed to the police force June 1st, 1888, where he has remained ever since.

WILLIAM HIGGINS,

of the First District, is another native Trentonian, being born in this city May 11th, 1856, acquiring his schooling in the public schools and his first and only employment in the potteries until becoming a Patrolman September 6th, 1890.

OLIVER G. COCKRAM,

of the First District, is another of tl1e city's faithful servants for whom we are indebted to a foreign country. Born in London, England, January 17th, 1863, his parents brought him to America when he was but one year old. They located in Trenton, where young Cockram attended the public schools and afterward learned the trade of a potter, which he followed until he became connected with the police force, being appointed Patrolman on June 27th, 1891.

EDWARD COUGHLIN,

of the First District, in addition to a reputation second to none as a faithful and painstaking officer, holds a warm place in the hearts of his fellow-officers for his rare good nature and kind and pleasant manners. Officer Coughlin was born in Trenton in 1854, where he attended the parochial schools. His first occupation was in the woolen mill, and was afterward a canal driver and then an iron- worker for the N. J. Iron & Steel Co. Officer Coughlin's identification with the Police Department dates from March 31st, 1892, when he entered the service as a patrol driver, being promoted to Patrolman on the twelfth of July of the same year.

EDWARD McLEA,

of the First District, one of the youngest men in the Department, first saw the light of day in Trenton November 9th, 1869. He was educated in the parochial schools and at Stewart' s Business College, in this city, and was an iron worker for a short period before his appointment as Patrolman, August 12th, 1896.

GEORGE H. CLARK,

of the First District, born May 28th, 1866, is another native Trentonian, who has spent his entire life at home, first attending the public schools and receiving his first employment in one of the brick yards. His next occupation was that of a yarn bleacher in the Wilson Mill and thence to the potteries, where he learned the trade of a sagger-maker. His appointment as a Patrolman was on the sixteenth day of April, 1890.

WILLIAM H. SCHENCK,

of the First District, whose earlier years were spent first in the sturdy and honorable calling of a farmer and afterwards as a belt-maker in the rubber works, was born in Lawrenceville, N. J., June 22d, 1856. Officer Schenck during his service, which began February 6th, 1889, has on numerous occasions shown his fitness by his fearlessness and good judgment in emergencies.

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[+ enlarge to read names.]

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EDWARD KELLY,

of the First District, who received his appointment on the sixth day of September, 1890, was born in Trenton on the sixteenth day of September and received his education at the public schools of Bordentown. Mr. Kelly's first experience in business was as an iron worker in the mills at Phillipsburg, where he was employed for ten years before coming to Trenton. After a brief experience in the potteries in this city he was appointed a Patrolman on the sixth day of September, 1890.

JOHN RYAN,

of the First District, was born in Ireland on the twenty-third day of June, 1860, and came to America at the age of 27 and worked as a wire-drawer in the Roebling Mills until his appointment, December 1st, 1893.

JOHN HEHER,

of the First District, born in Ireland in 1864, came to America and lived at various times in Boston, Providence and Philadelphia before finally locating in Trenton. His residence here extends over a period of thirteen years and his connection with the Police Department began on July 14th, 1892.

HENRY RICHTER,

of the First District, was born in Germany, State of Baden, August 21st, 1840. When a boy of fourteen he started alone to try his fortunes in "the land of the free and the home of the brave" and landed in Philadelphia, where he learned the trade of a shoemaker and worked at it in that city for five years. In 1859 he came to Trenton and followed his trade here until his appointment to the police force, December 6th, 1882.

RICHARD J. BAMFORD,

of the First District, was born in Trenton April 20th, 1861, and received his education in the public and Model Schools. He then learned the trade of a sawmaker and followed that for fifteen years, when he became a Patrolman, receiving his appointment April 1st, 1892.

JOHN McDONOUGH,

of the First District, who was born in Ireland, February 10th, 1861, left his native country at an early age and went to England and learned the trade of an iron worker, at which he also worked in this country after his arrival in 1880. He was appointed Patrolman September 11th, 1891.

HENRY WALKER,

of the First District, born in Hanley, Staffordshire, England, July 4th, 1863, came to America and located in Trenton ten years later. After a time spent in the public schools of this city, he learned the trade of china decorator, which he followed until he became a Patrolman April 13th, 1898.

PETER McLAUGHLIN,

of the First District, was born in Ireland the twenty-ninth day of July, 1868. The first years of his life were spent as a farmer in his native country, but, tiring of

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this, at the age of nineteen he came to America, located in Trenton and learned the trade of an iron worker, which he followed up to the time of his appointment, with the exception of four years he was an attendant at the State Insane Asylum. He was appointed February 24th, 1893.

MARTIN McDONALD,

of the First District, was born in Kingston, Middlesex county, N. J., November 8th, 1860, where he attended school until coming to Trenton in 1869. He learned the trade of a potter, which he followed until he joined the force, March 31st, 1892.

JOHN H. HUTCHINSON,

of the First District, is a native of Cranbury, N. J., where he was born March 29th, 1858. He remained there, attending the public schools until he was eighteen years of age, after which he became a watchman in the New Jersey State Reform School. Later on he was employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, having charge of the delivery of stock in the stock-yards. His appointment to the Police Department occurred on May 22d, 1890.

SAMUEL M. MYERS,

of the First District, was born in Bucks county, Pa., April 5th, 1856. His first occupation was that of a boatman, which he followed until his appointment, September 26th, 1891.

JOHN McKEON,

of the First District, was born in Ireland on the fourth of March, 1864. He learned the trade of a shoemaker in Ireland and worked at it until he came to America in 1882. He first settled in Elizabeth and was a chemical worker until he came to Trenton, about eleven years ago. He has been a Patrolman since March 31st, 1892.

RICHARD C. PILGER,

of the First District, is a native-born Trentonian, born May 24th, 1860, receiving his education in the public and parochial schools and at Rider & Allen's night school. He afterward learned the trade of a chainmaker and was at one time a letter-carrier under Col. Eckford Moore, resigning from the latter place to accept a position as Patrolman on the fifteenth of February, 1890.

JAMES T. CULLITON,

of the First District, was born in Tunstall, Staffordshire, England, on the ninth day of April, 1860, of Irish parents. He attended St. Mary's parochial school in his native place, and on the fourth day of June, 1872, he accompanied his parents to this country and settled in East Trenton, where he has resided ever since. Mr. Culliton began life as a wareroom boy in the Mercer Pottery, and at the age of 15 started in the same factory to learn the trade of a jiggerman, in the line of making plates. After serving a four years' apprenticeship, he was accepted as a journeyman and remained in the same position until 1887, when he went to the Eagle Pottery, which was under the management of Frederick Duggan. On the fifteenth of March, 1888, he resigned his position there to become a Patrolman in the township of Millham. On May 1st of the same year he and Bernard McManus

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Police Committee from the annexed districts. Mr. Culliton is the recording secretary of the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association.

JAMES J. FAY,

of the First District, was born in Clommall, Ireland, on the eleventh of April, 1849, came to America in 1865 and located first in Pottsville, Pa., where he remained one year and then went to New York, where he enlisted in the regular army and served three years in the West, where he saw some real fighting, being wounded on two different occasions. After engaging in several different enterprises he came to Trenton in 1880 and was first employed as a guard in the penitentiary and then in the rubber mill until receiving his appointment as a Patrolman on February 6th, 1889.

WILLIAM V. ADAMS,

of the First District, was born in Bordentown, N. J., September 2d, 1856, attended school there and afterward engaged in farming until the age of 16, when he came to Trenton and followed several different occupations, among others clerking in a grocery, and working in the rolling mill, potteries and brick-yards, in the latter place learning the trade of a presser, which he followed until made a Patrolman, November 10th, 1890.

JOHN J. DONNELLY,

of the Second District, was born in Trenton July 8th, 1864, and educated in the parochial, schools. He learned the trade of a Wire-drawer in the Roebling Mills and was thus employed when he joined the police force, on March 31st, 1892.

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[+ enlarge to read names.]

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JOSEPH A. TYRRELL,

of the Second District, was born in Trenton May 1st, 1862. After attending the parochial schools he learned the trade of wire-drawer in the Roebling Mill and was also employed in the New Jersey Steel and Iron Co. His appointment dates from January 1st, 1891.

JOHN J. McCARTHY,

of the Second District, was born in Trenton August 5th, 1861, and attended both the public and parochial schools. He worked at the potters' trade until his appointment, April 1st, 1890.

JACOB RIEMAN,

Lof the Second District, was born in Trenton the twentieth of December, 1871, Attended the schools of the city and learned the trade of a baker, which business he followed until his appointment as a Patrolman, January 8th, 1896.

MICHAEL J. SHANNON,

Of the Second District, was born in New York City the thirtieth day of June, l.1864, and came to Trenton about 1885. His former occupation was that of a horseman, and was for several years foreman of the old City Street Railroad stables. His appointment was received May 2d, 1891.

FRANK S. HIGBEE,

Of the Second District, born in Atlantic City, on the nineteenth of October, 1861,

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[+ enlarge to read names.]

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followed the sea for a number of years and came to Trenton in 1876 and was engaged in the business of a carpenter until June 30th, 1891, when he was appointed to the police force.

WILLIAM S. THOMSON,

of the Second District, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, May 1st, 1858. His parents brought him to this country when but a child and located in Trenton. He was a stone-cutter by trade, but was employed in the potteries previous to his appointment on May 23d, 1893.

JOHN GOLDENBAUM,

of the Second District, born in Germany on the twenty-ninth of June, 1866, came with his parents at the age of fifteen to America and settled in Trenton. He learned the trade of a carpenter, which he followed until he became a Patrolman, March 30th, 1898.

CHARLES HUEPEDEN,

of the Second District, was born on the twenty-seventh day of March, 1862, in Germany, in which country he went to school and also learned the trade of a hornturner. At the age of nineteen he came to America, located in Trenton and learned the potters' trade, which he followed until his appointment to the force on June 23d, 1891.

BERNARD F. TRAINOR,

of the Second District, was born in New Egypt, Ocean county, N. J., July 12th, 1865, and in 1880 came to Trenton, where he was employed as a conductor on the street railroad until his appointment as a Patrolman, April 13th, 1898.

JACOB J. WALTERS,

of the Second District, was born in Trenton the nineteenth of March, 1858, and attended the public schools. He is a wiredrawer by trade and was engaged in that occupation when he was appointed on the force, March 31st, 1892. vJAMES A. ROSS,

of the Second District, was born in Ireland June the 14th, 1871. His parents brought him to America when he was nine years of age and located in Trenton. After leaving school he became a teamster and was foreman for a contractor until appointed Patrolman on the eighteenth of October, 1898.

JAMES W. SMITH,

of the Second District, was born in Burlington county, N. J., August 2d, 1854, and removed to Trenton at an early age and worked for a. number of years in the potteries and rubber mills. He was appointed a Patrolman May 1st, 1888, and was a delegate to the first State Convention of the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association, which perfected the organization, and was chosen its first president without any solicitation on his part. Mr. Smith was a member of the old Chambersburg Department from May 13th, 1884, to May 1st, 1888.

THEODORE WEIGAND,

of the Second District, was born in Newark, N. J., February 5th, 1854, and

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came to Trenton with his parents at the age of 5. After leaving school he went to work in the chain works and remained there until he was appointed Patrol- man, May 4th, 1881.

SAMUEL B. STOUT,

of the Second District, was born in Bristol, Pa., June the 25th, 1854, and came to Trenton with his parents in 1861. After completing his education, which he did at the public and Model Schools, he followed the water for a number of years and was captain of a boat at the age of 20. In 1876 he went to railroading on the Pennsylvania Railroad and followed that until his appointment, September 6th, 1890.

GEORGE FOX,

of the Second District, was born in Griggstown, N. J., on the twenty-sixth of March, 1869. Was educated in the public schools at his birthplace and afterward engaged in railroading until he joined the Trenton police force, on the thirteenth of April, 1897.

JOHN MAGUIRE,

of the Second District, is a native of Ireland, having been born on the fifteenth day of December, 1853. His parents brought him to America when but a small child and located temporarily in the city of Philadelphia. At ten years of age he came to the city of his final adoption and has worked as an iron worker, street car conductor and canal boatman. His appointment dates from January 21st, 1887.

JOHN C. GELLER,

of the Second District, was born in Trenton on the eighteenth of August, 1865. He received his education at St. Francis Parochial School, and before engaging in his present occupation was employed at various times in Exton's Bakery and in the potteries, and was in the saloon business for himself at the time of his appointment, April 22d, 1897.

ANTHONY ALCUTT,

of the Second District, is another Bucks county, Pa., boy, being born there in 1850. The principal employment of his life previous to his entering the police service was with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. His connection dates from the sixth day of February, 1889.

JAMES R. LAIRD,

of the Second District, was born in Mercer county June 2d, 1856, was educated in the public schools of Trenton and found his first employment in the potteries. He was afterward connected with the Lock and Hardware Company during the three or four years of its existence and then engaged in the carpenter business with his father, which they conducted until Mr. Laird' s appointment as a Patrolman, which occurred on March 18th, 1890.

PETER J. SMITH,

of the Second District, was born in Pennington, Mercer county, N. J., December 1st, 1861, but has resided in Trenton since the first year of his age. After

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finishing his education at St. John's Parochial School on Cooper street, he went to work in the potteries, learning the trade of a kilnman. Being of athletic build and fond of out-door sports, he developed into a ball-player of great proficiency and played on the local teams in 1882 and '83, and in 1884 and '85 professionally in the Eastern League. In 1885 he had offers from the Baltimore and Brooklyn teams both, but declined them, preferring to take up again the less hazardous and more permanent work of a potter. He continued at his old occupation until the time of his call to police duty on April 1st, 1890. He succeeded James J. Smith as President of the Patrolmen's Benevolent Association and was re-elected at the last meeting.

ROBERT B. TYRRELL,
Chief of Police, Princeton, N. J.

     A position requiring superior tact, discretion and wisdom is that of Robert B. Tyrrell, the popular and efficient head Of the Police Department of Princeton. In the years of service Mr. Tyrrell has devoted to this work, he has con- ducted himself in a manner that has won the respect of all good citizens.

     Every one familiar with college life knows what the exuberance of spirits of the boys sometimes leads to, and that a little restraint is sometimes necessary, especially when flushed with victory won over a rival college in a hot contest of international interest.

     At such times a friendly admonition on the part of the chief is invariable sufficient to lower the temperature of the most overheated, and quickly restore rising passion to a normal condition. Mr. Tyrrell was quick to recognize the importance and the benefits to he de- rived from an organization of the Superior officers of the State and was one of the first to enroll his name among the membership.

WILLIAM H. HAMMEL,

of the Second District, born in Germany on the twenty-second day of February, 1869, came with his parents to America, who located in Pittsburg [sic] for two years before taking up their final residence in Trenton. After receiving a common school education, he attended Stewart's Business College and then learned the trade of a butcher, which he followed four years. His next occupation was that of a wool-sorter and then a kilnman in the potteries. Mr. Hanunel is also an expert ball-player and played as a professional at one time on the Plainfield and

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Somerville teams in the New Jersey State League. He was appointed a Patrolman August the 31st, 1894.

EDWARD FITZPATRICK,

of the Second District, was born in Trenton August 22d, 1857. After leaving the parochial school, where he received his education, he learned the trade of a marble-cutter, in which he was engaged up to the time of his appointment as a Patrolman, December 11th, 1889.

WILLIAM H. SHOCKLEY,

of the Second District, was born in Wilmington, Del., March 25th, 1851, where he went to school and lived until 1868, when he removed to Burlington and later located in Trenton. His first occupation was that of a teamster, at the same time acting as a special officer in Chambersburg. This he followed for about three years before his appointment as a Patrolman on the Trenton force on April 29th, 1890.

PATRICK O'HARA,

of the Second District, was born in Ireland, March 15th, 1851, and came to America, with his parents when a child and located first in Philadelphia, where he received his education in St. Ann's Parochial School and learned the harness trade. At the age of 16 he came to Trenton and followed the occupation of an iron worker until his appointment to the force April 16th, 1886.

WILLIAM F. SANDHOFF,

of the Second District, was born in Germany on the thirteenth of February, 1865, and came to America at the age of 17. He followed the occupation of a laborer until he became a Patrolman, January 1st, 1897.

ERNEST J. HILLMAN,

of the Second District, was born in Germany October 2d, 1855. After leaving school he served in the German army from 1875 to 1878, then came to America and settled in Trenton and worked in a wire-rope shop until he joined the Police Department as a Patrolman, March 31st, 1892.

LUKE D. JOHNSON,

of the Second District, was born and raised in Trenton, educated in the public and parochial schools and followed the occupation of an iron worker until coming on the force on August 10th, 1893.

CHARLES H. SCHANCK

was born May 2d, 1856, at Hightstown, N. J., and came to Trenton in 1868; was educated in the public schools of his native place. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to a cigarmaker, learned the trade and went into business for himself, and was so engaged until his appointment in the Chambersburg Police Department, June 7th, 1881, a11d a member of Trenton force by annexation act of May 1st, 1888.

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Biographies of Police Commissioners.

CHARLES PITMAN KITSON,

the President of the Board of Police Commissioners was born at Morrisville, Pa., in July, 1841. His father, who was horn in England, was a patternmaker, and after his removal to this country became the foreman of the Pattern Department of the New Jersey Steel and Iron Company, holding that position from 1865 to the year 1879, when he was succeeded by his son, who has held the position ever since.

     Young Kitson received a common school education, which he supplemented by an extensive Course of private study and reading, becoming thoroughly pro-

ficient in higher mathematics, which knowledge has been of inestimable value to him in his business.

     He served his apprenticeship under his father and completed his trade in the large manufactory of Kile & Co., at Philadelphia. He had previously had some experience in coach building, but quit that calling to study the one his father was engaged in.

     It is needless to say that Mr. Kitson is the thorough master of his pattern business, as applied to general machine work and heavy construction, and his position is one of the most responsible in the large establishment with which he is identified.

     He has twenty men under his control and has been with the concern from the time when it was a small and unimportant establishment in bridge and

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structural building until it has become one of the chief industries of New Jersey.

     Mr. Kitson has for many years been at factor in the politics of the city. He is a Democrat of the staunchest. kind and was elected to council in 1882 from the Fourth ward by one of the biggest majorities that district ever gave to a candidate.

     In 1885 he was mentioned prominently for Mayor and has been one of the possibilities for that office ever since.

     His first connection with the Police Board occurred March 22d, 1894, when he was appointed by Mayor Joseph Shaw to fill a vacancy. On May 8th of the same year he was re-appointed by the same Mayor for one year, and May 7th, 1895, Mayor Emory N. Yard gave him the appointment for the full term

of four years. He has now been the president of that body for three years and has given a great part of his time to the study of the Police Department work that he could better perform the duties of his office.

     He has shown much talent and understanding in the work, and it is safe to say that few men in the city departments take so much interest in everything pertaining to it as he.

     He is a strong advocate of the strictest discipline and his influence is felt in the mechanism of the Department, which, as everyone knows, runs with the smoothness of a Well-regulated watch.

     Mr. Kitson was married in 1863 and is the father of a daughter and two sons; the latter are employed with him at the factory. He is a member of both branches of the I. O. O, F. and past officer in each, and is at past officer in the

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Knights of Pythias. These being the only secret societies that he is connected with.

ROBERT SURTEES

was born at New Castle on Tyne, England, November 19th, 1847. After completing his education, he engaged in the iron business in the neighborhood of his birthplace. In 1877 he came to America and built two mills- one at Chester and the other at Thurlow, Pa., and was Assistant Superintendent of each for awhile and then removed to Philadelphia to accept a similar position with the Keystone Horse Shoe Co. About thirteen years ago he came to Trenton,

where he has remained ever since, having charge of the Receiving Department and the Rolling Mill.

     Mr. Surtees is a Republican in politics and is President of the Chambersburg Republican League. He is also a member of the United Order of Workmen, the Royal Arcanum and the Sons of St. George.

     He was appointed Police Commissioner by Mayor Yard in 1896 for a term of four years, being the only political position he has ever held.

HARRY S. MADDOCK,

Police Commissioner, was born in Brooklyn, New York, July 15th, 1861, and educated at Hasbrouck Institute, Jersey City. He is a member of the well- known firm of Thomas Maddock & Sons and has been a resident of Trenton for

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twenty-two years. Mr. Haddock was appointed by Mayor Sickle to the position of Commissioner in May, 1898, for a four-year term.

WILLIAM J. CONVERY

is a life-long resident of Trenton, having been born in this city October 28th, 1853.

     He is the senior member of the well-known furniture firm of Convery & Walker and has always been identified with the Democratic party, and was a member of the House of Assembly in the years 1882-1883; He is now serving his second term as Police Commissioner, being re-appointed by Mayor Sickel in May, 1897, for a term of four years.

RICHARD R. LUTES,

the Secretary of the Board of Police Commissioners, was born in Trenton and has lived here for the past thirty-three years. He was educated in the public schools and at Rider's Business College, afterward learning the business of telegrapher and stenographer, at which he is at present engaged with the New Jersey Steel and Iron Co., having held the same position for eighteen years. Mr. Lutes is a Republican in politics and is a member of the Royal Arcanum. He was appointed Secretary of the Commissioners March 27th, 1894.

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SAMUEL WALKER, JR.,

appointed by Mayor Briggs May 2d, 1899, as Police Commissioner to succeed Charles P. Kitson, whose term expired, is a typical "self-made" man and a progressive citizen, manifesting an interest in all movements that are beneficial to the city. He was born at Trenton, October 1st, 1860, and received his education in public and private schools, graduating from the High School in the class of '79. After completing his education he entered the law office of ex-Judge Buchanan, and was admitted to the bar as attorney-at-law November, 1883, and as counselor June, 1888. In 1884 he formed a partnership with Charles B. Case, and for two years they conducted

a general law and real estate business under the firm name of Case & Walker. In 1886 this partnership was dissolved, and since that time Mr. Walker has been devoting his time and attention to his law practice, which has been steadily increasing. He was made a member of the Board of School Trustees in 1882. In 1891 he became a member of the Board of Health of the city for a term of three years. In 1892 he was appointed City Treasurer, a position of great importance and responsibility, the duties of which for two years he discharged faithfully and satisfactorily. He has also served a term of three years as Collector for Mercer County. In politics Mr. Walker has always affiliated with the Democratic party.

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